Loading...

Peeping into the Emerging Threat of Novel Influenza D Virus: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-190    | Article Id: R-190 | Page : 276-283
Citation :- Peeping into the Emerging Threat of Novel Influenza D Virus: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2021.(42):276-283
Muhammad Zeeshan Akram, Ali Murtaza, Muhammad Kashif,Syed Ehtisham-ul-Haque, Aman Ullah Khan, Waqas Ahmad, Hassan Jalal, Muhammad Farooq, Ahmad yar Qamar, H.M. Khizer Aziz, Zohaib Shahid muhammad.kashif@uvas.edu.pk
Address : Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Jhang, Pakistan.
Submitted Date : 8-01-2021
Accepted Date : 22-03-2021

Abstract

In 2011, a new virus was isolated from swine with influenza-like symptoms in Oklahoma, USA. Later in 2013, it was also evidenced in cattle, considered as its natural reservoir, elsewhere in the USA. This new virus has certain resemblance with Influenza C virus (ICV), predominately a human pathogen. Due to its inability to re-assort with ICV, it is now classified as Influenza D virus (IDV) and is a new candidate in the Orthomyxoviridae family. It causes mild respiratory disease in several animal species and replicates in both upper and lower respiratory tract. To date, serological evidence was demonstrated in various animal species and humans in all continents except Australia. It is transmitted through direct contact or through aerosol routes. Not much is known about its potential impact to animal and human health but it poses a potential risk as an emerging threat to cattle-workers. Currently, limited data is available on its global occurrence and distribution. Therefore, in current review, we summarize the global available data regarding epidemiology, pathology, zoonotic potential and future perspectives of this virus. In conclusion, continuous surveillance and risk assessment of this emerging virus is required.

Keywords

Emerging infectious diseases Emerging pathogens Epidemic Influenza D virus Pandemic

References

  1. Asha, K. and Kumar, B. (2019). Emerging Influenza D Virus Threat: What We Know So Far! Journal of Clinical Medicine. 8. DOI: 10.3390/jcm8020192.
  2. Borkenhagen, L.K., Mallinson, K.A., Tsao, R.W., Ha, S.J., Lim, W.H., Toh, T.H., Gray, G.C. (2018). Surveillance for respiratory and diarrheal pathogens at the human-pig interface in Sarawak, Malaysia. PLOS ONE. 13.
  3. Chiapponi, C., Faccini, S. De Mattia, A. Baioni, L. Barbieri, I. Rosignoli, C. Foni, E. (2016). Detection of Influenza D Virus among Swine and Cattle, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 22: 352-354. DOI: 10.3201/eid2202.151439.
  4. Collin, E.A., Sheng, Z. Lang, Y.Ma.W., Hause, B.M. (2015). Cocirculation of Two Distinct Genetic and Antigenic Lineages of Proposed Influenza D Virus in Cattle. Journal of Virology. 89: 1036-1042. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02718-14.
  5. Desselberger, U., Racaniello, V.R., Zazra, J.J., Palese, P. (1980). The 3’ and 5’-terminal sequences of influenza A, B and C virus RNA segments are highly conserved and show partial inverted complementarity. Gene. 8: 315-328. DOI: 10.1016/0378-1119(80) 90007-4.
  6. Ducatez, M.F., Pelletier, C. Meyer, G. (2015). Influenza D Virus in Cattle, France, 2011-2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21. DOI: 10.3201/eid2102.141449.
  7. Eckard, L.E. (2016). Assessment of the Zoonotic Potential of a Novel Bovine Influenza Virus. 88.
  8. Faccini, S., De Mattia, A. Chiapponi, C. Barbieri, I. Boniotti, M.B., Rosignoli, C. Nigrelli, A.D. (2017). Development and evaluation of a new Real-Time RT-PCR assay for detection of proposed influenza D virus. Journal of Virological Methods. 243: 31-34.
  9. Ferguson, L., Eckard, L. Epperson, W.B., Long, L.P., Smith, D. Huston, C. Wan, X.F. (2015). Influenza D virus infection in Mississippi beef cattle. Virology. 486: 28-34.
  10. Ferguson, L., Luo, K. Olivier, A.K., Cunningham, F.L., Blackmon, S. Hanson-Dorr, K. Wan, X.-F. (2018). Influenza D Virus Infection in Feral Swine Populations, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 24: 1020-1028.
  11. Ferguson, L., Olivier, A.K., Genova, S. Epperson, W.B., Smith, D.R., Schneider, L. Wan, X.-F. (2016). Pathogenesis of Influenza D Virus in Cattle. Journal of Virology. 90: 5636-5642. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.03122-15.
  12. Flynn, O., Gallagher, C., Mooney, J., Irvine, C., Ducatez, M., Hause, B., Ryan, E. (2018). Influenza D Virus in Cattle, Ireland. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 24: 389-391. DOI: 10.3201 /eid2402.170759.
  13. Foni. E., Chiapponi, C., Baioni, L., Zanni, I., Merenda, M., Rosignoli, C., Faccini, S. (2017). Influenza D in Italy: towards a better understanding of an emerging viral infection in swine. Scientific Reports, 7. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-12012-3.
  14. Hause, B.M., Collin, E.A., Liu, R., Huang, B., Sheng, Z.Lu, W.Li.F. (2014). Characterization of a Novel Influenza Virus in Cattle and Swine: Proposal for a New Genus in the Orthomyxoviridae Family. 5. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00031-14.
  15. Hause, Ben. M., Ducatez, M., Collin, E.A., Ran, Z., Liu, R., Sheng, Z.Li.F. (2013). Isolation of a Novel Swine Influenza Virus from Oklahoma in 2011 Which Is Distantly Related to Human Influenza C Viruses, 9.
  16. Hause, Ben M., Huntimer, L. Falkenberg, S. Henningson, J. Lechtenberg, K. Halbur, T. (2017). An inactivated influenza D virus vaccine partially protects cattle from respiratory disease caused by homologous challenge. Veterinary Microbiology. 199: 47-53.
  17. Henritzi, D., Hoffmann, B. Wacheck, S. Pesch, S. Herrler, G. Beer, M. Harder, T.C. (2019). A newly developed tetraplex real-time RT-PCR for simultaneous screening of influenza virus types A, B, C and D. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses. 13: 71-82.
  18. Holwerda. M., Laloli, L. Stuermer, I. Portmann, J. Stalder, H. Dijkman, R. (2019). Determining the replication kinetics and cellular tropism of the ruminant-associated Influenza D virus on primary human airway epithelial cells. BioRxiv.
  19. Horimoto, T., Hiono, T., Mekata, H., Odagiri, T., Lei, Z., Kobayashi, T., Murakami, S. (2016). Nationwide Distribution of Bovine Influenza D Virus Infection in Japan. PLOS ONE, 11.
  20. Jiang, W.M., Wang, S.C., Peng, C., Yu, J.M., Zhuang, Q.Y., Hou, G.Y., Che, J.M. (2014). Identification of a potential novel type of influenza virus in Bovine in China. Virus Genes. 49: 493-496.
  21. Kishimoto, M., Tsuchiaka, S., Rahpaya, S.S., Hasebe, A., Otsu, K., Sugimura, S. Mizutani, T. (2017). Development of a one-    run real-time PCR detection system for pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease complex. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. DOI: 10.1292/jvms.16-0489.
  22. Lee, Y.S. and Seong, B.L. (1998). Nucleotides in the panhandle structure of the influenza B virus virion RNA are involved in the specificity between influenza A and B viruses. Journal of General Virology. 79: 673-681.
  23. Luo, J., Ferguson, L., Smith, D.R., Woolums, A.R., Epperson, W.B., Wan, X.F. (2017). Serological evidence for high prevalence of Influenza D Viruses in Cattle, Nebraska, United States, 2003-2004. Virology. 501: 88-91.
  24. Mekata, H., Yamamoto, M., Hamabe, S., Tanaka, H., Omatsu, T., Mizutani, T. Okabayashi, T. (2018). Molecular epidemiological survey and phylogenetic analysis of bovine influenza D virus in Japan. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 65. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12765.
  25. Mitra, N., Cernicchiaro, Torres. Li, Hause. (2016). Metagenomic characterization of the virome associated with bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle identified novel viruses and suggests an etiologic role for influenza D virus. Journal of General Virology. 97: 1771-1784.
  26. Moreno, A., Lelli, D., Lavazza, A, Sozzi, E., Zanni, I., Chiapponi, C., Brocchi, E. (2019). MAb-based competitive ELISA for the detection of antibodies against influenza D virus. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 66: 268-276.
  27. Murakami, S., Endoh, M., Kobayashi, T., Takenaka-Uema, A., Chambers, J.K., Uchida, K. Horimoto, T. (2016). Influenza D Virus Infection in Herd of Cattle, Japan. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 22: 3.
  28. Nakatsu, S., Murakami, S., Shindo, K., Horimoto, T., Sagara, H., Noda, T., Kawaoka, Y. (2018). Influenza C and D Viruses Package Eight Organized Ribonucleoprotein Complexes. Journal of Virology. 92. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.02084-17.
  29. Nedland, H., Wollman, J., Sreenivasan, C., Quast, M., Singrey, A., Fawcett, L. (2018). Serological evidence for the co-circulation of two lineages of influenza D viruses in equine populations of the Midwest United States. Zoonoses and Public Health. 65. DOI: 10.1111/zph.12423.
  30. Quast, M., Sreenivasan, C. Sexton, G. Nedland, H. Singrey, A. Fawcett, L. (2015). Serological evidence for the presence of influenza D virus in small ruminants. Veterinary Microbiology. 180: 281-285.
  31. Rosignoli, C., Faccini, S. Merenda, M. Chiapponi, C. de Mattia, A. Bufalo, G. Garbarino, C. (2017). Influenza D virus infection in cattle in Italy. Retrieved February 1, 2019, from https://www.cabdirect.org/cabdirect/abstract/20173298682.
  32. Salem, E., Cook, E.A.J., Lbacha, H.A., Oliva, J., Awoume, F., Aplogan, G.L. Ducatez, M.F. (2017). Serologic Evidence for Influenza C and D Virus among Ruminants and Camelids, Africa, 1991-2015. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 23: 1556-1559.
  33. Salem, E., Hägglund, S., Cassard, H., Corre, T., Näslund, K., Foret, C. Meyer, G. (2019). Pathogenesis, host innate immune response and aerosol transmission of Influenza D virus in cattle. Journal of Virology. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01853-18
  34. Smith, D.B., Gaunt, E.R., Digard, P., Templeton, K. Simmonds, P., (2016). Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples. Journal of Clinical Virology. 74: 50-53.
  35. Snoeck, C.J., Oliva, J., Pauly, M., Losch, S., Wildschutz, F., Muller, C.P., Ducatez, M.F. (2018). Influenza D virus circulation in cattle and swine, Luxembourg, 2012–2016. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 24: 1-3.
  36. Song, H., Qi, J., Khedri, Z., Diaz, S., Yu., H., Chen, X., Gao, G.F. (2016). An Open Receptor-Binding Cavity of Hemagglutinin-Esterase-Fusion Glycoprotein from Newly-Identified Influenza D Virus: Basis for Its Broad Cell Tropism. PLOS Pathogens. 12. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005411.
  37. Sreenivasan, C., Thomas, M., Sheng, Z., Hause, B.M., Collin, E.A., Knudsen, D.E.B. (2015). Replication and Transmission of the Novel Bovine Influenza D Virus in a Guinea Pig Model. Journal of Virology. 89: 11990-12001.
  38. Su, S., Fu, X., Li., G., Kerlin, F.. Veit, M. (2017). Novel Influenza D virus: Epidemiology, pathology, evolution and biological characteristics. Virulence. 8: 1580-1591.
  39. Thielen, P., Nolting, J.M., Nelson, S.W., Mehoke, T.S., Howser, C. Bowman, A.S. (2019). Complete Genome Sequence of an Influenza D Virus Strain Identified in a Pig with Subclinical Infection in the United States. Microbiol Resour Announc. 8: 1462-18.
  40. Wan, Y., Kang, G., Sreenivasan, C., Daharsh, L., Zhang, J., Fan, W., Li, Q. (2018). A DNA Vaccine Expressing Consensus Hemagglutinin-Esterase Fusion Protein Protected Guinea Pigs from Infection by Two Lineages of Influenza D Virus. Journal of Virology. 92: 110-18.
  41. White, S.K., Ma, W., McDaniel, C.J., Gray, G.C., Lednicky, J.A., (2016). Serologic evidence of exposure to influenza D virus among persons with occupational contact with cattle. Journal of Clinical Virology. 81: 31-33.
  42. Zhai, S.L., Zhang, H., Chen, S.N., Zhou, X., Lin, T., Liu, R., Li, F., (2017). Influenza D Virus in Animal Species in Guangdong Province, Southern China. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 23: 1392-1396.

Global Footprints