Role of Pulses in Cropping Systems: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1888    | Article Id: R-1888 | Page : 185-191
Citation :- Role of Pulses in Cropping Systems: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2019.(40):185-191
Adarsh. S, Jacob John, Giffy Thomas sssadarshsss@gmail.com
Address :
Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Kerala Agriculture University, Padannakkad-671314, India
Submitted Date : 1-04-2019
Accepted Date : 21-09-2019

Abstract

Climate change threatens global food and economic security. The decreased availability and import of pulses highlight the urgency of increased production. Pulse included cropping systems are the only way to enhance production as the area available are limited. Increased yield at spatial and temporal dimensions are focused here. Cropping system including pulses consists of inter cropping, sequential cropping, mixed cropping, relay cropping and paira/utera cropping. They compete for light, space, residual moisture content and available nutrients with companion crops. They improve soil properties, reduce pest and disease incidence. The specific role of pulses in cropping system includes high carbon sequestration capacity, low carbon footprint, fixing atmospheric nitrogen in soils, low water footprint, hydrogen fertilization of soils and improving soil biodiversity. Since they are easy to cultivate it creates employment opportunities for women. Pulses provide economic profitability to farmers. There lies a promising, sustainable and cost effective solution in these tiniest seeds.
 

Keywords

Climate Change Cropping System Pulse Inter Cropping Sequential Cropping

References

  1. Bridgit, T. K., Potty, N. N., and Marykutty, K. C. (1994). A management model for the improvement of soil and crop productivity in semi dry rice. In: Kumar, R. R. (ed.), Proceedings of the Sixth Kerala Science Congress; 27-29 January 1994, Thiruvananthapuram. Kerala State Committee on Science, Technology and Environment, Government of Kerala, pp 125-126.
  2. Cai, T., Cai, W., Zhang, J., Zheng, H., Tsou, A. M., Xiao, L., Zhong, Z., and Zhu, J. (2009). Host legume exuded anti-metabolites optimize the symbiotic rhizosphere. Mol. Microbiol. 73 (3): 507-517.
  3. Dong, Z., Wu, L., Kettlewell, B., Caldwell, C. D., and Layzel, D. B. (2003). Hydrogen fertilization of soils – is this a benefit of legumes in rotation? Plant Cell Environ. 26 (11): 1875-1879.
  4. FAO [Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations]. (1996). Rome Declaration on World Food Security. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Available: http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/w3613e/w3613e00.html [05 Jan 2017].
  5. FAO [Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations]. (2016). Pulses- Nutritious Seeds for Sustainable Future. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy. 189p.
  6. FAO [Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations]. (2016). Pulses- Nutritious Seeds for Sustainable Future. Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy. 189p
  7. Gan, Y., Liang, W., Wang, X., and Mc Conkey, B. (2011). Lowering carbon footprint of durum wheat by diversifying cropping systems. Field Crops Res. 122: 199–206.
  8. Garg, N., and Geetanjali. (2007). Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules: process and signaling-a review. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 27: 59-68.
  9. GPC [Global Pulse Confederation]. (2016). Orphan Crops: a solution to global food system risks and an investment opportunity for future agricultural research [on line]. Available: http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Programs/Agriculture and the Environment/Agriculture and Food Security/Pages/ArticleDetails.aspx? PublicationID=11 [21 Nov. 2016]
  10. Havlin, J. L., Tisdale, S. L., Nelson, W. L., and Beaton, J. D. (2014). Soil Fertility and Fertilizers- An Introduction to Nutrient Management. (8th Ed.). PHI Learning Private Limited. New Delhi, 512 p.
  11. ICMR-NIN [Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Nutrition]. (2011). Dietary Guidelines for Indians – A Manual. Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Nutrition. Available: http://ninindia.org/DietaryGuidelinesforNINwebsite.pdf [09 July 2019].
  12. Li, L., Sun, J., Zhang, F., Guo, T., Bao, X., Smith, F.A., and Smith, S. E. (2006). Root distribution and interactions between intercropped species. Ecosyst. Ecol. 147 (2): 280-290.
  13. Martin, C., Morgavi, D. P., and Doreau, M. (2010). Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale. Animalia 4 (3): 351-365. 
  14. NIN [National Institute of Nutrition] (2004). Nutritive value of pulses. In:  Gopalan, C., Ramasastri, B.V., and Balasubramanian, S.C. (Eds). Nutritive Value of Indian Foods, National Institute of Nutrition, ICMR, Hyderabad, p.112.
  15. Palaniappan, S. P. and Sivaraman, K. (1996). Cropping Systems in the Tropics - Principles and Management. New Age International (P) Limited, New Delhi, 211p.
  16. Panda, S. C. (2006). Cropping and Farming Systems. Agro bios (India), Jodhpur, 431p.
  17. Pathak, A. R., Pithia, M, S., Javia, R. M., and Mehta, D. R. (2017). Challenges and options for meeting the needs of pulses-A review. Agricultural Reviews. 38(2): 103-111.
  18. Paynel, F., Lesuffleur, F., Bigot, J., Diquelou, S., and Cliquet, J. B. (2008). A study of 15N transfer between legumes and grasses. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 28: 281-290.
  19. PDCSR [Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research] (2006). Annual Report 2005-06, AICRP on Cropping Systems. Project Directorate for Cropping Systems Research, Modipuram, Meerut 126p.
  20. Porpavai, S., Devasenapathy, P., Siddeswaran, K., and Jayaraj, T. (2011). Impact of various rice based cropping systems on soil fertility. J. of Cereals and Oilseeds. 2 (3): 43-46.
  21. Prakash, H. C., Shekara, B. G., Jagadeesh, B. R., and Shivalingaiah, M. L. (2008). Paddy pulse cropping system for sustaining soil health and rice yield in Cauvery command area. Res. on Crops. 19 (1):7-9.
  22. Rajeshkumar, A., Venkataraman, N.S., Ramadass, S., Ashokkumar, N., and Thirumeninathan, S. (2017). Effect of weed control and cropping system on weed population and productivity of maize grown sole or intercropped with pulses. J. of Crop and Weed. 13 (3): 150-155.
  23. Rao, B.S.N. (2002). Pulses and legumes as functional foods. Bull. Nutr. Foundation India. 23 (1): 1-9.
  24. Reddy, T.Y. and Reddy, G.H.S. (2013). Principles of Agronomy. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, 527p.
  25. Rodgers, K. J., Shiozawa, N. (2008). Misincorporation of amino acid analogues into proteins by biosynthesis. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 40: 1452–1466.
  26. Roy, D., Joshi, P. K., and Chandra, R. (2017). Pulses for Nutrition in India Changing Patterns from Farm to Fork. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC, 256p.
  27. Sah, U., Dubey, S. K., and Singh, S. K. (2014). Empowerment of farm women with pulses production technologies: An empirical framework. Current Advances in Agricultural Sciences. 6(1): 35-41.
  28. Schoeny, A., Jumel, S., Rouault, F., Lemarchand, E., and Tivoli, B. (2010). Effect and underlying mechanisms of pea-cereal inter cropping on the epidemic development of ascochyta blight. Eur.  J.  Plant Pathol. 126: 317–331.
  29. Sekiya, N. and Yano, K. (2004). Do pigeon pea and sesbania supply groundwater to intercropped maize through hydraulic lift? – Hydrogen stable isotope investigation of xylem waters. Field Crop Res. 86 (2-3): 167-173.
  30. Singh, K. K., Ali, M., and Venkatesh, M. S. (2009). Pulses in Cropping Systems. Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, 39p.
  31. Skujins, J. (1973). Dehydrogenase: an indicator of biological activities in arid soils. Bull. Ecol. Res. Comm. 17: 235-241.
  32. Smil, V. (1999). Nitrogen in crop production: An account of global flows.  Glob. Biogeochem. Cycles. 13(2): 647-662.
  33. Smith, E. G., Zentner, R. P., Nagy, C. N., Khakbazan, M., and Lafond, G. P. (2008). Decoding your fuel bill: What is your farm’s real energy bill? Prairie Soils Crops 1: 5-6.
  34. Sugiyama, A. and Yazaki, K. (2012). Root exudates of legume plants and their involvement in interactions with soil microbes. [On line] Available: http://www.springer.com/978-3-642-23046-2 [28 Dec. 2016].
  35. Uratsu, S. L., Keyser, H. H., Weber, D. F., and Lim, S. T. (1982). Hydrogen uptake (HUP) activity of Rhizobium japonicum from major US soybean production areas. Crop Sci. 22: 600-602.
  36. Uzokwe, V. N. E., Mlay, D. P., Masunga, H. R., Kanju, E., Odeh, I. O. A., and Onyeka, J. (2016). Combating viral mosaic disease of cassava in the Lake Zone of Tanzania by inter cropping with legumes. Crop Protection. 84: 69-80.
  37. Varughese, K., Jacob, J., Rani, B., and Thomas, M. (2014). Enhancing pulses production in Kerala. In: Enhancing Pulses Production-Technologies and Strategies (Eds.Gangwar, B. and Singh, A.K.), pp.287-300, New India Publishing Company, New Delhi.
  38. Venkatesh, M. S., Hazra, K. K., Ghosh, P. K., Praharaj, C. S., and Kumar, N. (2013). Long-term effect of pulses and nutrient management on soil carbon sequestration in Indo-Gangetic plains of India. Can. J. Soil Sci. 93: 127-136.
  39. WCED [World Commission on Environment and Development]. (1987). Our Common Future. Oxford University Press, UK. 383p.
  40. WHO [World Health Organization]. (2018). Newsroom. World Health Organization. Available: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/11-09-2018-global-hunger-continues-to-rise---new-un-report-says [09 July 2019].

Global Footprints