Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 40 issue 2 (june 2019) : 121-128

Stem Gall of Coriander: A Review

Munish Leharwan, Meenu Gupta
1Department of Plant Pathology, Dr Yashwant Singh Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India 
Cite article:- Leharwan Munish, Gupta Meenu (2019). Stem Gall of Coriander: A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 40(2): 121-128. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1885.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is an important highly nutritive crop belonging to family Apiaceae. To meet increasing global demand and consumption, coriander productivity must be enhanced. However, biotic stresses such as diseases have impeded coriander cultivation both in the tropics and subtropics. Of them, stem gall of coriander, incited by the fungus Protomyces macrosporus Unger, is one of the most common, widespread and serious diseases throughout the world and causes significant yield losses. Symptomatology, biology, and etiology of stem gall and its control through fungicides, bio-product and bio-control have not been widely studied, and substantial information is still required on the inoculum potential, growth models and epidemiological parameters of stem gall, the influence of changing the climate, impact of extensive use of fungicides and disease resistance. These critical factors may influence the development and emergence of stem gall. Because of the increasing demands of coriander in the world, control of stem gall is gaining importance. The present review deals briefly with different aspects of stem gall disease with major emphasis on its ecology, pathology, epidemiology, and management. Some new approaches such as biological control, integrated management strategies, and some other aspects are also discussed.
  1. Alexopoulos, C.J., Mims, C.W. and Blackwell, M. (2002). Introductory Mycology. 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons Inc, USA. 880p.
  2. Bacigalova, K., Lopandic, K., Rodrigues, M.G., Fonseca, A., Herzberg, M., Pinsker, W. and Prillinger, H. (2003). Phenotypic and genotypic identification and phylogenetic characterization of Taphrina fungi on alder. Mycol. Prog. 2:179–196.
  3. Bacigalova, K., Mulenko, W. and Wolczanska, A. (2008). Novelties of Protomycetaceae in the tatra mts. Polish Bot. J. 53:169–176.
  4. Bacigalova, K. (2004). Contribution to the knowledge of the Protomycetaceae in Slovakia. Thaiszia. J. Bot. 14:1–22.
  5. Bag, T.K. (1998). Stem gall of coriander- a new record from Arunachal Pradesh. Indian J. Hill Farming  11:1 -2, 119.
  6. Baumler, J.A. (1890). Beitrage zur Cryptogamen – Flora des Presburger Comitates II. – Vehr. Vereins Natur-Heilk. Pressburg 6:62-126.
  7. Bhardwaj LN and Shreshtha SM. 1985. Efficacy of fungicide application in the control of stem gall of coriander. Agric. Eco. Env. 13:319-323.
  8. Bhat, S., Kausha,l P., Kaur, M. and Sharma, H.K. (2014). Review: Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): processing, nutritional and functional aspects. African J. Pl. Sci. 8:25-33.
  9. Buren, G. (1915). Die schweizerischen Protomycetaceen mit besonderer Berucksichtigung ihrer Entwicklungsgeschichce und Biologie. Beitrage Kryptofl Schweizer 5:1- 95.
  10. Butler, E.J. (1918). Fungi and Diseases in Plants. Thacker Spink and Co., Calcutta, 547p.
  11. Dabbas, M.R., Singh, D.P. and Prakash, H.G. (2009). Management of stem gall of coriander through IDM practice. Intern. J. Pl. Protec. 2:255-257. deBary, A. (1887). Comparative Morphology and Biology of Fungi, Mycetozoa and Bacteria. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 525p.
  12. Gupta, J.S. (1958). Laboratory assay of certain fungicides, antibiotics and sulpha-drugs on the germination of chlamydospore of Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Agra Univ. J. Res. Sci. 7:105-111.
  13. Gupta, J.S. (1959). Studies on certain diseases of coriander. PhD. Thesis. Department of Plant Pathology. Agra University, Agra. 120p.
  14. Gupta, R.N. (1973). Longevity of chlamydospore of coriander stem gall fungus. Indian Phytopath. 26:581-582.
  15. Gupta, R.N. and Sinha, S. (1973). Varietal field trials in the control of stem gall disease of coriander. Indian Phytopath. 26:337-340.
  16. Gupta, J.S. and Sinha, S. (1963). Some therapeutic control trials on stem gall disease of coriander. Indian Phytopath. 16:75-78.
  17. Gupta, J.S. (1954). Disease appraisal of stem gall of coriander. Indian Phytopath. 7:53-60.
  18. Gupta, J.S. (1962). Pathological anatomy of the floral parts and fruits of coriander affected with Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Agra Univ. J. Res. Sci. 11:307-311.
  19. Gupta, R.N. (1975). Mineral matter content in coriander leaves and fruits as influenced by stem gall disease. Indian Phytopath. 28:136-137.
  20. Hawker, L.E. (1950). Physiology of Fungi. University of London Press Ltd, London, 359p.
  21. Heim, P. (1967). Sur le Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Botaniste Se 50:259-269.
  22. Khan, M.R. and Parveen, G. (2016). Screening of some recently developed coriander varieties against stem gall disease caused by Protomyces macrosporus. J. Pl. Path. Microbio. 7(8):1-3
  23. Kharayat, B.S. (2018). Stem gall of coriander. /imageresource.
  24. Khare, M.N., Tiwari, S.P. and Sharma, Y.K. (2014). Disease problems in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum L.) cultivation and their management for production of quality pathogen free seeds. Int. J. Seed Spices 4:11-17.
  25. Khare, M.N., Tiwari, S.P. and Sharma, Y.K. (2017). Disease problems in the cultivation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and their management leading to production of high quality pathogen free seed. Int. J. Seed Spices 7(1):1-7.
  26. Kramer, C.L. (1973). Protomycetales and Taphrinales. In: The Fungi, An Advanced Treatise. Vol IV A. (Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK and Sussman AS eds). Academic Press, New York. pp.33-41.
  27. Kumar, G., Patel, J.S., Yadav, S.K., Kumar, A. and Saxena, R.P. (2016). Evaluation of coriander germplasm against stem gall disease of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). J. Pure Appl. Microbio. 10(2):1-6.
  28. Kumar, G., Yadav, S.K., Patel, J.S., Sarkar, A. and Awasthi, L.P. (2014). Management of stem gall diseases in coriander using Pseudomonas and Trichoderma (bioagents) and fungicides. J. Pure Appl. Microbio. 8:1-4.
  29. Lakra, B.S. (2000). Management of stem gall of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) incited by Protomyces macrosporus. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 70:338-340.
  30. Lakra, B.S. and Parkash, S. (1993). A new technique of isolation of Protomyces macrosporus. Indian J. Myc.Pl. Path. 23:320-321.
  31. Lakra, B.S. (1999). Assessment of losses due to stem gall of coriander. Pl. Dis. Res. 14:85-87.
  32. Lakra, B.S. (2001). Diseases of Coriander - Introspection and Strategies in Their Management. In: Diseases of Plantation Crops, Spices, Betel vine and Mulberry. Burges Publication Company, Minnesota, USA, pp.111-114.
  33. Leharwan, M., Gupta, M. and Shukla, A. (2018). Effect of temperature and moisture levels on disease development of stem gall of coriander. Agric. Sci. Digest. 38(4): 307-309.
  34. Lodder, J. and Kregervan, R.N.J.W. (1952). The Yeast: A Taxonomy Study. North Holland Pub. Co., Amster-dom, 713p.
  35. Malhotra, S.K., Kakani, R.K., Sharma, Y.K. and Singh, D.K. (2016). Ajmer coriander- 1(NRCSS, ACR-1) resistant to stem gal disease- an innovative farming technology. Indian J. Arecanut, Spices Medic. Pl. 18:1-7.
  36. Malhotra, S.K., Vashishtha, B.B. and Apparao, V.V. (2006). Influence of nitrogen, Azospirillum spp. and farmyard manure on growth, yield and incidence of stem gall disease of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). J. Spices Aromatic Crops 15:115-117.
  37. Mathur, S.B. and Narula, P.N. (1963). Effect of certain fungicides, antibiotics and synthetic phytoharmones on the germination of chlamydospore of Protomyces macrosporus Unger causing stem gall disease of coriander. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sec. B 33:615-617.
  38. Mishra, R.S. and Pandey, V.P. (2017). Evaluation of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) genotypes for resistance to stem gall disease and seed yield. J. Spices Aromatic Crops 26(1): 33-36.
  39. Mishra, R.S. and Tiwari, A. (2018). Effects of polythene covering on stem gall disease and yield of coriander (Coriandrum sativum l.). Pl. Archi. 18(1):126-128.
  40. Mishra, R.S., Kumar, S., Pandey, V.P. and Pathak, .SP. (2017). Effect of stem gall disease caused by Protomyces macrosporus on biochemical changes of coriander. Int. J. Pure Appl. Biosci. 5:690-699.
  41. Mix, A.J. (1925). Ibid 15: 214-222.
  42. Mukhopadhyay, A.N. and Pavgi, M.S. (1971). Environment in relation infection of coriander by Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan 37:215-219.
  43. Mukhopadhyay, A.N. and Pavgi, M.S. (1964). Chlamydospore germination and artificial culture of Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Experientia 20:619.
  44. Mundkur, B.B. (1959). Fungi and Plant Diseases. MacMillan and Co., Ltd., London. pp.107-109.
  45. Naqvi, S.A.M.H. (1985). Varietal screening of coriander against stem gall in relation to disease intensity and crop loss. Indian J. Myc. Pl. Path. 12:270-276.
  46. Nene, Y.L., Siddiqui, I.A. and Kharbanda, P.D. (1966). Control of stem gall of coriander by fungicides. Mycopathologia Mycologia Applicata 29:142-144.
  47. Nishida, H., Blanz, P.A. and Sugiyama, J. (1993). The higher fungus Protomyces inouyei has two group I introns in the 18S rRNA gene. J. Mol. Evol. 37:25-28.
  48. Pandey, S. (2010). Coriandrum sativum, a biological description and its uses in the treatment of various diseases. Int. J. Pharmacy Life Sci. 1:119-126.
  49. Paul, Y.S. (1992). Studies on seed-borne mycoflora of coriander with special reference to stem gall in Himachal Pradesh. Pl. Dis. Res. 7:19-23.
  50. Pavgi, M.S. and Mukhopadhyay, A.N. (1972). Development of coriander fruit infected by Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Cytologia 37:619-627.
  51. Pavgi, M.S. and Mukhopadhyay, A.N. (1969a). Artifical culture and in vitro chlamydospore development of Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Pathologia et. Microbiologia 33:287-295.
  52. Pavgi, M.S. and Mukhopadhyay, A.N. (1970). Cytology of chlamydospore germination in Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Cytologia 35:359-367.
  53. Popta, C.H.L. (1899). Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Hemiasci. Flora 86:1-46.
  54. Preece, T.F. and Hick, A.J. (2001). An introduction to the Protomycetales: Burenia inundata on Apium nodiflorum and Protomyces macrosporus on Anthriscus sylvestris. Mycologist 15:118-125.
  55. Reddy, M.S. and Kramer, C.L. (1975). A taxonomic revision of the Protomycetales. Mycotaxon 3:1-50.
  56. Redfern, M. and Shirley, P. (eds). (2002). British plant galls: identification of galls on plants and fungi. Shrewsbury: field studies council, United Kingdom, 222p.
  57. Sahib, N.G., Anwar, F., Gilani, A.H., Hamid, A.A., Saari, A., Alkharfy, K.M. (2012). Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): A potential source of high-value components for functional foods and nutraceuticals- A Review. J. Phytotherapy Res.27:1-18.
  58. Saxena, R.P., Dixit, S., Pandey, V.P. and Singh, V.K. (2002). Germplasm screening for stem gall disease in coriander. In: National Symposium on Integrated Management of
  59. Plant Disease of mid-Eastern India with a Cropping System Perspective, held at NDUAT, Faizabad during 5-7 December.
  60. Saxena, M. and Gandhi, C.P. (eds). (2015). Indian Horticulture Database. National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi, India, 248p. (URL. http//
  61. Shrivastava, H.C. (1955). Studies on tumour disease of Coriandrum sativum caused by Protomyces macrosporus Unger. Proceeding of 42nd Indian Science Congress part. III, 218p.
  62. Shukla, S., Saxena, R.P., Awasthi, L.P. and Singh, S. (2006). Comparative efficacy of some commercial fungicides and onion extract for the control of stem gall disease of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). In 58th Annual Meeting and National Symposium on “Emerging Plant Diseases their Diagnosis and Management” held at North Bengal University, Siliguri-734013, Jan. 31 – Feb. 2, 2006.
  63. Singh, R., Singh, B. and Lal, G. (2016). Climate resilience technologies for seed spices in semi arid condition of Rajasthan. National seminar on “New dimensional approaches for enhancement of seed spices productivity and profitability under era of climatic change”. Organized by ICAR-NRCSS, Ajmer from February 2-3, 2016.
  64. Singh, R.K. and Verma, S.S. (2015). Characterization of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) based on the morphological traits. J. Agric. Res. 2:221-224.
  65. Singh, S.P., Gupta, J.S. and Sharma, A.K. (1984). Disease appraisal and crop loss estimates in coriander attacked by Protomyces macrosporus Unger in Uttar Pradesh. Geobios 11:276-278.
  66. Spices Board India. (2018). Statistics http://
  67. Sugiyama, J., Hosaka, K. and Sung, O.S. (2006). Early diverging Ascomycota: phylogenetic divergence and related evolutionary enigmas. Mycologia 98(6): 996-1005.
  68. Sydow, H. and Butler, E.J. (1911). Fungi Indiae orientalis. Ann. Mycol. 9:372-421.
  69. Tiwari, R.S. and Agarwal, A. (2014). Production Technology of Spices. International book Distribution Company, pp.254-271.
  70. Tripathi, A.K., Bartaria, A.M., Pandya, R.K.and Tripathi, M.L. (2002). Effect of cultural practices on stem gall disease of coriander. Ann. Agric. Res. 23:171-173.
  71. Tripathi, A.K. (2003). Effect of sowing dates and weather parameters on stem gall disease of coriander. Indian Phytopath. 56:191-193.
  72. Tripathi, A.K. (2005). Efficacy of fungicides and plant products against stem gall disease of coriander. J. Myc. Pl. Path. 35:388-389
  73. Trouffy, S.P. (1897). Note sur laplace da Protomyces macrosporus Unger dans 1a classification. Le Botaniste 5:285-288.
  74. Tubaki, K. (1957). Biological and cultural studies of three species of Protomyces.Mycologia 49:44-54.
  75. Unger, F. (1833). Die. Exanthame der Pflanzen: 344p.
  76. Upadhyay, R. and Pavgi, M.S. (1967). Perpetuation of Taphrina maculans Butler, the incitant of turmeric leaf spot disease. Phytopathology Z 59:136-140.
  77. Valverde, R.A. and Templeton, G.E. (1984). Leaf gall of Torilis japonica caused by Protomyces macrosporus in Arkansas. Plant Disease 68:716–717.
  78. Verma, R.K., Soni, K.K., Chourasiya, S. and Singh, S. (2014). Stem gall of Boerhaavia diffusa caused by Protomyces macrosporus: A new host record. Indian J. Trop. Biod. 22:91-94.

Editorial Board

View all (0)