Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.63

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 42 issue 1 (march 2021) : 12-21

Smart Fertilizer Strategy for Better Crop Production

A. Karthik, M. Uma Maheswari
1Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore-641 003, Tamil Nadu, India.
Cite article:- Karthik A., Maheswari Uma M. (2020). Smart Fertilizer Strategy for Better Crop Production. Agricultural Reviews. 42(1): 12-21. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1877.
Food security is one of the major concerns for all developing countries of the world. Even though we had attained the highest food production with the use of new technologies, we may not able to feed the burgeoning population adequately in coming years due to stagnant crop productivity. Natural source of nutrients like organic manures and external source of nutrients, viz. fertilizers, are considered as the two eyes in plant nutrient management. Nutrient use efficiency of fertilizer is very low due to numerous pathways of losses such as leaching, denitrification, microbial immobilization, fixation and runoff. It has been estimated that around 40-70% of nitrogen, 80-90% of phosphorus, 50-70% of potassium and more than 95% of micronutrient content of applied fertilizers are lost in to the environment and results in pollution (Kanjana, 2017). 
    Smart fertilizers like slow and controlled release fertilizers, nanofertilizers and bioformulation fertilizers are the new technologies to enhance the nutrient use efficiency their by improving crop yield in sustainable manner. The use of slow and controlled release fertilizers increase nutrient use efficiency, minimize the risks like leaf burning, water contamination and eutrophication. Nano-fertilizers are the nano-particles-based fertilizers, where supply of the nutrients is made precisely for maximum plant growth, have higher use efficiency, exploiting plant unavailable nutrients in the rhizosphere and can be delivered on real time basis into the rhizosphere or by foliar spray (Priyanka Solangi et al., 2015). The small size, high specific surface area and reactivity of nano fertilizers increase the solubility, diffusion and availability of nutrients to plants and enhance crop productivity. Bioformulation is microbial preparations containing specific beneficial microorganisms which are capable of fixing or solubilizing or mobilizing plant nutrients for promoting plant growth and crop yield. Smart fertilizers are the better option for the farmers to increase their crop yield with low input cost in sustainable way without degrading natural environment.
  1. AAPFCO, (1995). Official Publication No. 48. Published by Association of American Plant Food Control Officials. Association of American Plant Food Control Officials (AAPFCO). Inc. West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
  2. Arora, N.K., Khare, E. and Maheshwari, D.K. (2010). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: constraints in bioformulation, commercialization and future strategies. In: Plant growth and health promoting bacteria. [Maheshwari DK (ed)], Springer–Verlag, Berlin, pp 97-116.
  3. Borie, F., Rubio, R. (2003). Total and organic phosphorus in Chilean volcanic soils. Gayana. Bot. 60: 69-78.
  4. Burges, H.D. and Jones, K.A. (1998). Formulation of microbial biopesticides: beneûcial microorganisms,nematodes and seed treatments. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, p 411.
  5. Chabbi, A., Lehmann, J., Ciais, P., Loescher, H.W., Cotrufo, M.F., Don, A., San Clements, M., S chipper, L., Six, J., Smith, 
  6. P., Rumpel, C. (2017). Aligning agriculture and climate policy. Nat. Clim. Change. 7: 307-309.
  7. Chalk, P.M., Craswell, E.T., Polidoro, J.C., Chen, D. (2015). Fate and efficiency of 15N-labelled Slow and controlled release fertilizers. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 102: 167-178.
  8. Cui, H., Jiang, J., Liu, Q. (2011). On plant nutrition smart delivery systems and precision fertilization. Acta Metall Sin. 17: 494-499.
  9. Dawson, C.J., Hilton, J. (2011). Fertilizer availability in a resource-limited world: production and recycling of nitrogen and phosphorus. Food Policy. 36: S14-S22.
  10. Devassine, M., Henry, F., Guerin, P., Briand, X. (2002). Coating of fertilizers by degradable polymers. Int. J. Pharm. 242: 399-404.
  11. Elser, J., Bennett, E. (2011). Phosphorus cycle: a broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature. 478: Pp.29-31.
  12. EPA (2007). Nanotechnology white paper. Report EPA 100/B-07/001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC.
  13. Egamberdieva, D., Adesemoye, A.O. (2016). Improvement of crop protection and yield in hostile agroecological conditions with PGPR-based biofertilizer formulations. In: Bioformulations: For Sustainable Agriculture. [Arora, N.K., Mehnaz, S., Balestrini, R. (Eds.)], Springer, India, pp. 199-211.
  14. FAO (2018). World fertilizer trends and outlook to 2020. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. P. 1-38.
  15. Ghormade, V., Deshpande, M.V., Paknikar, K.M. (2011) Perspectives for nano-biotechnology enabled protection and nutrition of plants. Biotechnol. Adv. 29: 792-803.
  16. International Fertilizer Association. (2016). Nutrient Management Handbook. Published by International Fertilizer Association, Paris, France. Pp. 1-44.
  17. Junejo, N., Khanif, M.Y., Hani, M.M., Yunus, W.M.Z., Dharejo, K.A. (2011). Role of inhibitors and bio-degradable material in mitigation of nitrogen losses from fertilized lands. African J. Biotechnol. 10: 3504-3514.
  18. Kim, I.Y., Pusey, P.L., Zhao, Y., Korban, S.S., Choi, H. and Kim, K.K., (2012). Controlled release of Pantoeaagglomerans E325 for bio-control of fire blight disease of apple. J Control Release. 161: 109-115.
  19. Mansoori, G.A. (2005). Principles of Nanotechnology: Molecular Based-Study of Condensed Matter in Small Systems. University of Illinois at Chicago, USA, World Scientific Publishing Co., p. 360.
  20. Manjunatha, S.B., Biradar, D.P., Aladakatti, Y.R. (2016). Nanotechnology and its application to agriculture: a review. J. Farm. Sci. 29(1): 1-13.
  21. Ngo, P.T., Rumpel, C., Doan, T.T., Henry-des-Tureaux, T., Dang, D.K., Jouquet, P. (2014). Use of organic substrates for increasing soil organic matter quality and carbon sequestration of tropical degraded soil (a 3 years mesocosms experiment). Carbon Manage. 5: 155-168.
  22. Panthapulakkal, S and Sain, M. (2015). The use of wheat straw fibres as reinforcements in composites. In: Biofiber Reinforcements in Composite Material. [Faruk, O., Sain, M. (Eds.)], Woodhead Publishing, UK, pp. 423-453.
  23. Qureshi, A., Singh, D.K and Dwidevi, S. (2018). Nano-fertilizers: A Novel Way for Enhancing Nutrient Use Efficiency and Crop Productivity. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci. 7(2): 3325-3335.
  24. Ladha, J.K., Tirol-Padre, A., Reddy, C.K., Cassman, K.G., Verma, S., Powlson, D.S., Van Kessel, C., Richter, D.B., Chakraborty, D., Pathak, H. (2016). Global nitrogen budgets in cereals: a 50-year assessment for maize, rice and wheat production systems. Sci. Rep. 6, 1-9. 19355, Article number: 19355.
  25. Lemke, R.L., Zhong, Z., Campbell, C.A., Zentner, R. (2007). Can pulse crops play a role in mitigating greenhouse gases from north American agriculture? Agron. J. 99: 1719-1725.
  26. Loper, S. and Shober, A.L. (2012). Soils and Fertilizers for Master Gardeners: Glossary of Soil and Fertilizer Terms. Gainesville: University of Florida. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
  27. Mora, M.L., Alfaro, M., Williams, P., Stehr, W., Demanet, R. (2004). Effect of fertilizer input on soil acidification in relation to growth and chemical composition of a pasture and animal production. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nut. 4: 29-40.
  28. Mastronardi, E., Tsae, P., Zhang, X., Monreal, C.M., De Rosa, M.C. (2015). Strategic role of nanotechnology in fertilizers: potential and limitations. In: Nanotechnologies in Food and Agriculture. [Rai, M., Ribeiro, C., Mattoso, L., Duran, N. (Eds.)], Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 25-67.
  29. Naz, M.Y., Sulaiman, S.A. (2016). Slow release coating remedy for nitrogen loss from conventional urea: a review. J. Control. Release 225: (10): 109-120.
  30. Rodrigo, M. (2011). Deciphering the rhizosphere microbiome for disease-suppressive bacteria. Science. 332: 1097-1100.
  31. Rumpel, C., Baumann, K., Remusat, L., Dignac, M.F., Barre, P., Deldicque, D., Glasser, G., Lieberwirth, I., Chabbi, A. (2015). Nanoscale evidence of contrasted processes for root derived organic matter stabilization by mineral interactions depending on soil depth. Soil Biol. Biochem. 85: 82-88.
  32. Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering. (2004). Nanoscience and nanotechnologies: opportunities and uncertainties. The Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering, London, UK.
  33. Sasson, Y., Levy-Ruso, G., Toledano, O., Ishaaya, I. (2007). Nanosuspensions: emerging novel agro chemical formulations. In: Insecticides design using advanced technologies. [Ishaaya I, Horowitz AR, Nauen R (eds)], Springer, Berlin, pp 1-39.
  34. Sastry, R.K., Rashmi, H.B., Rao, N.H. (2011). Nanotechnology for enhancing food security in India. Food Policy. 36: 391-400.
  35. Sekhon, B.S. (2014). Nanotechnology in agri-food production: an overview. Nanotechnol. Sci. Appl. 7: 31-53.
  36. Shaviv, A. (2005). Controlled Release Fertilizers. IFA International Workshop on Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers, Frankfurt. International Fertilizer Industry Association Paris, France
  37. Shukla, S., Hanlon, E.A., Jaber, F.H., Stoffella, P.J., Obreza, T.A and M. Ozores-Hampton. (2013). Groundwater Nitrogen: Behavior in Flatwoods and Gravel Soils Using Organic Amendments for Vegetable Production. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
  38. Smith, P.D., Cai, M.Z., Gwary, D., Janzen, H., Kumar, P., Mc Carl, B., Ogle, S., O’Mara, F., Rice, C., Scholes, B., Sirotenko, O. (2007). Agriculture. In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. [Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R., Meyer, L.A. (Eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK/New York, pp. 497-540.
  39. Singh, M.V. (2008). Micronutrient deficiencies in crops and soils in India. In: Micronutrient deficiencies in global crop production. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 93-125.
  40. Subramanian, K.S, Paulraj, C., Natarajan, S. (2008). Nanotechnological approaches in nutrient management: Nanotechnology applications in agriculture, TNAU technical bulletin. TNAU, Coimbatore, pp 37-42.
  41. Tao, S., Liu, J., Jin, K., Qiu, X., Zhang, Y., Ren, X., Hu, S. (2011). Preparation and characterization of triple polymer-coated controlled-release urea with water-retention property and enhanced durability. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 120: 2103-2111
  42. Tarafdar, J.C, Indira Rathore and Esther Thomas. (2016). Enhancing Nutrient Use Efficiency through Nano Technological Interventions. Indian J. Fert. 11(12): pp. 46-51.
  43. Tesfay, T., Gebresamuel, G. (2016). Agronomic and economic evaluations of compound fertilizer applications under different planting methods and seed rates of tef [Eragrostis tef (zucc.) Trotter] in northern Ethiopia. J. Drylands. 6(1): 409-422.
  44. Timilsena, Y.P., Adhikari, R., Casey, P., Muster, T., Gill, H., Adhikari, B. (2015). Enhanced efficiency fertilizers: a review of formulation and nutrient release patterns. J. Sci. Food Agric. 95: 1131-1142.
  45. Trenkel, M.E. (1997). Controlled-release and stabilized fertilizers in agriculture. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Paris.
  46. Trenkel, M.E. (2010). Slow- and Controlled-Release and Stabilized Fertilizers: An Option for Enhancing Nutrient Use Efficiency in Agriculture. Published by International Fertilizer Industry Association (IFA), Paris, France. P. 1-143.
  47. Trabelsi, D. and Mhamdi, R. (2013). Microbial inoculants and their impact on soil microbial communities: a review. Bio Med. Res. Int. 86: 32-40.
  48. Umesha, C., Sridhara, C.J. and Kumarnaik, A.H. (2017). Recent Forms of Fertilizers and Their Use to Improve Nutrient Use Efficiency and To Minimize Environmental Impacts. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 5(2): 858-863.
  49. Valkama, E., Virkajarvi, P., Uusitalo, R., Ylivainio, K., Turtola, E. (2016). Meta-analysis of grass ley response to phosphorus fertilization in Finland. Grass Forage Sci. 71: 36-53
  50. Vela ´squez, G., Ngo, P.T., Rumpel, C., Calabi-Floody, M., Redel, Y., Turner, B.L., Condron, L.M., Mora, M.L. (2016). Chemical nature of residual phosphorus in Andisols. Geoderma 271: 27-31.
  51. Wiedner, K., Rumpel, C., Pozzi, A.,Maas, R., Steiner, C., Glaser, B. (2013). Chemical evaluation of chars produced by thermochemical conversion (gasification, pyrolysis and hydrothermal carbonization) of agro-industrial biomass on a commercial scale. Biomass Bioenergy. 59: 264-278
  52. Yang, X., Abraham, N.L., Archibald, A.T., Braesicke, P., Keeble, J., Telford, P.J., Warwick, N.J., Pyle, J.A. (2014). How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short-lived bromocarbons? Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14: 10431-10438.

Editorial Board

View all (0)