Reed Bed System: An Option for Reclamation of Polluted Water Resources: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1869    | Article Id: R-1869 | Page : 81-92
Citation :- Reed Bed System: An Option for Reclamation of Polluted Water Resources: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2019.(40):81-92
Sathyapriya K , C Chinnusamy kavikathir2000@gmail.com
Address : Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
Submitted Date : 23-01-2019
Accepted Date : 5-06-2019

Abstract

At present, India is facing the worst water shortage in its history. According to a report by Niti Aayog, about 600 peoples are suffering with high to extreme water shortage and also states that around 200,000 lives of Indians are losing every year owing to the contamination of water or inadequate water supply. Here comes, the need for the safeguard of water resources in our country. But the fact is that Indian rivers are polluting at an alarming rate of 80% due to untreated wastewater flowing into water bodies have almost doubled in recent years. To reduce the contamination level of water resources, wastewater treatment will play a predominant role. Conventional wastewater treatment technique, i.e., activated sludge, were used to reduce the concentration of the pollutants in sewage water. However, there are still some confines especially that they operate at a higher cost. The objective of this review paper is to elaborate on how the reed bed system can act as a better alternative technology to conventional system for wastewater treatment.

Keywords

Conventional techniques Reed bed system Wastewater treatment Water contamination and shortage.

References

  1. Afifi A. Samir, Sadiq Abdelall and Samir Alnahhal (2015). Developing an Integrated Sustainable Sanitation System for Urban Areas: Gaza Strip Case study. Procedia CIRP 26: 767 – 774.
  2. Ahalya N, R.D. Kanamadi and T.V. Ramachandra (2005). Biosorption of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by the husk of Bengal gram (Cicer arientinum). Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 8 (3): 258-267.
  3. Asano, T. and A. D. Levine (1996). Wastewater reclamation, recycling, and reuse: Past, present and future. Water Science & Technology 33: 1-14.
  4. Bansari M. Ribadiya and Mehali J. Mehta (2014). Treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater by reed bed technology: A low cost treatment approach. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 4(12): 15-18.
  5. Bhargava Akshey (2016). Activated sludge treatment process-Concept and System Design. International Journal of Engineering Development and Research 4(2): 890-896.
  6. Bowker, R.P.G (2000). Biological odour control by diffusion into activated sludge basins. Water Science & Technology 41: 127-132.
  7. Bouali M., M. Feki and A. Bakhrouf (2006). Comparative study of two constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences 4(2): 1680-1691.
  8. Brix, H. (1994). Use Of constructed wetland in water pollution control: historical development, present status, and future perspectives. Water Science & Technology 30(48): 209 - 223.
  9. Browning K. M and Greenway M (2002). Nutrient removal and plant growth in a sub-surface flow constructed wetland in Brisbane, Australia. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control  2: 919-929.
  10. Burgoon PS, DeBusk TA, Reddy K R and Koopman B (1991). Vegetated submerged beds with artificial substrates- BOD removal. Journal of Environmental Engineering 117(4): 394–407.
  11. Burgoon PS, Reddy K R and DeBusk TA (1995). Performance of subsurface flow wetlands with batch-load and continuous flow conditions. Water Environment Research 67(5): 855–62.
  12. Burka, U. and Lawrence, P. C. (1990). Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control (Cooper, P. F. and Findlater, B. C., eds), Pergamon Press: 359-371
  13. CGWB (2010). Ground Water Year Book - India 2010. Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources. Government of India.
  14. CGWB (2011). Ground Water Year Book - India 2011. Central Ground Water Board, Ministry of Water Resources. Government of India.
  15. Chavhan Arvind, Jayashree Dhote and Sangita Ingole (2012). Review on wastewater treatment technologies. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 1(5): 1 – 10.
  16. Cooper P F (1990). European Design and Operation Guidelines for Reed Bed Treatment Systems, Report Ul 17, Water Research Centre, Swindon, UK SN5 8YR.
  17. CPCB (2004, 2010). Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Government of India.
  18. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Population Prospects: 2017.
  19. Dhote Jayashree, Sangita Ingole and Arvind Chavhana (2012). Review on wastewater treatment technologies. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 1(5): 1-10.
  20. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency 1993). Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland for wastewater treatment, EPA 832-R-93-008, U.S.A.
  21. Fisher PJ (1990). Hydraulic characteristics of constructed wetlandsat Richmond, Australia. Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control. Oxford UK: Pergamon Press: 21–32.
  22. Forum – Workshop on Enginnered reed bed systems for wastewater treatment (1995). Trends in biotechnology 13.
  23. Garcia Joan, Paula Aguirre, Rafael Mujeriego, Yuming Huang, Laura Ortiz and Josep M. Bayona (2004). Initial contaminant removal performance factors in horizontal flow reed beds used for treating urban wastewater. Water Research 38: 1669–1678.
  24. Giles, H. and B. Brown (1997). And not a drop to drink: Water and sanitation services in the Glossary of wastewater terms
  25. Halverson Nancy V. (2004) Review of Constructed Subsurface Flow vs. Surface Flow Wetlands U.S. Department of Energy.
  26. https://sswm.info/sswm-university-course/module-6-disaster-situations-planning-and-preparedness/further-resources/horizontal-flow-constructed-wetlands-(hfcw) 
  27. Jindal R and C Sharma (2011). Bio monitoring of pollution in river Sutlej. International Journal of Environmental Sciences 2(2): 863 -872.
  28. JM L, Yl A, Ox W, Luo J and Jaing H (2015). Hydrochemical characteristics and sources of rivers. Europe Pub Med central., 36: 1565-1572.
  29. Kulkarni Amol A, Mugdha Deshpande and A B Pandit (2000). Techniques of Wastewater Treatment: Introduction to Effluent Treatment and Industrial Methods. Resonance., 8: 56-68.
  30. Kumar R., R Singh and K. Sharma (2005). Water resources of India. Current Science 89: 794-811.
  31. Lan C., Chen G., LI, L. and Wang, M. H (1990). Constructed Wetlands in Water Pollution Control. Pergamon Press: 419-427.
  32. Liang, W., Wu, Z.B., Cheng, S.P., Zhou, Q.H., Hu, H.Y. (2003). Roles of substrate microorganisms and urease activities in wastewater purification in a constructed wetland system. Ecological Engineering, 21: 191–195.
  33. Manju and Smita Chaudhry (2015). Impact of Industrial Pollution on Yamuna River: A Review. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), Delhi, India.
  34. Mankoskar Amol B and Prof. Sagar M. Gawande (2016). Reed bed system an efficient treatment removal of sewage wastewater parameters. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology 3(1): 1250-1252.
  35. Marcus Zipperlen (2006). Reed Beds & Constructed Wetlands Tipsheet 50p. The Centre for Alternative Technology, CAT Publications. www.cat.org.uk.
  36. Mennerich Artur, Lothar Niebuhrand Hady Ezzo (2017). Full Scale Sludge Treatment in Reed Beds in Moderate Climate—A Case Study. Water 9: 1-8.
  37. Nergis Yasmin, Mughal Sharif, Ahmad Hussain, Jawad A Butt and Yusra Tahir (2017). Reed Bed Technology and Recharging on Groundwater: Mitigating the Climate Effect of Coastal Areas. Journal of Earth Science and Climate Change 8(7): 406-411.
  38. Netter R (1994). Flow characteristics of planted soil filters. Water Science and Technology 294: 37–44.
  39. Nielsen Steen (2012). Sludge Treatment in Reed Beds Systems – Development, design, experiences. Sustainable Sanitation Practices 12: 33-39.
  40. Rajasulochana P and V. Preethy (2016). Comparison on efficiency of various techniques in treatment of waste andsewage water – A comprehensive review. Research Efficient Technologies 2: 175–184.
  41. Raval P. B. Desai (2015). Root Zone Technology: Reviewng its past and present. International journal of current microbiology and applied science 4 (7): 238-247.
  42. Sima Jan, Jiri Krejsa and Lubomir Svoboda (2015).  Removal of Mercury from Wastewater Using a Constructed Wetland. Croatica chemica acta 88 (2): 165–169.
  43. Soli J Arceivala and Shyam R Asolekar (2007). Wastewater Treatment for pollution control and reuse. Tata McGraw hill, Third Edition: 278-289.
  44. Subalakshmi R, C.Manikandan and T. Renganathan (2015). Construction and performance        evaluation of reed bed wastewater treatment unit. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Science 8(4): 750-758.
  45. Suresh kumarrohilla and Deblina Dwivedi (2013). Reinvent, Recycle, Reuse toolkit on Decentralised wastewater management. Centre for Science and Environment.
  46. Suthar S, Nema A K, Chabukdhara M and Gupta S K (2009). Assessment of metals in water and sediments of Hindon River, India: Impact of industrial and urban discharges. Journal of Hazardous materials, 171: 1088-1095.
  47. Tanner CC (2001). Plant as ecosystem engineers in subsurface-flow treatment wetlands. Water Science and Technology 44(12): 9–18.
  48. Timothy Bralower and David Bice (2011). Ocean Circulation and its impact on Climate. Earth 103: Earth in the Future. Module 6. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/earth103
  49. Tiwari Kartikey, Shivendra Jha, Kandarp Vyas, Kavan Patel and Mihir Patel (2017). Reed bed technology: A Review. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention Research  3(9): 554-556.
  50. Vymazal, J., Brix, H., Cooper, P. F., Green, M. B. & Haberl, R., (1998). Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment in Europe. Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands, 17-66.
  51. Waste Water Gardens (WWG) international information Sheet - About constructed wetland: 1 – 26.
  52. Zhao Y. Q., R. Connolly, G. Sun and S. J. Allen (2003). Start-up of a novel reed bed system for agricultural wastewater treatment. Transactions on Ecology and the Environment 65: 303 to

Global Footprints