Loading...

Potentiality of new feed ingredients for aquaculture: A review
 

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1819    | Article Id: R-1819 | Page : 282-291
Citation :- Potentiality of new feed ingredients for aquaculture: A review.Agricultural Reviews.2018.(39):282-291
P. Singh, B.N. Paul and S.S. Giri bnpaulcifa@gmail.com
Address : Regional Research Centre of ICAR-Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture. P.O. Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, West Bengal, India.
Submitted Date : 19-06-2018
Accepted Date : 20-10-2018

Abstract

The continuous demand for alternative protein sources for fish due to its short supply, high prices and competition with the human food. A review of unconventional feeds in fish nutrition was carried out to provide information on supplemental feed for effective Aquaculture. Non-conventional dietary energy and protein sources,especially from plant origin can be used to replace expensive protein sources. There is a continuous demand for alternative protein sources for fish due to short supply, cereals and oilseed mealsfor sustainable aquaculture production. The solid waste materials like distillers dried grain soluble, breweries waste, ghee residue and agricultural plant materials like jute, leucaena, moringa, cassava, rain tree and spirulina can find a place in formulation of aquafeed as one of the inexpensive feed ingredients. The non-conventional feed ingredients to be incorporated in fish feed up to recommended levels.

Keywords

Breweries waste Distillers grain soluble Ghee residue Jute leaf Non-conventional feed Rain tree pod.

References

  1. Abdelghany, A.E. (2003). Partial and complete removal of fish meal with gambusia meal in diets for red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus. Aquaculture Nutrition.9: 145-154.
  2. Abu, O.M.G., Sanni, L.O., Erondu, E.S. and Akinrotimi, O.A. (2010). Economic viability of replacing maize with whole cassava root meal in the diet of hybrid catfish. Agricultural Journal. 5(1):1–5.
  3. Achaya, K. T. (1997). Ghee, vanaspati and special fats in India. In ¸ipidechnologies and Applications, [eds F. D. Gunstone and F. B. Padley]. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, pp. 369-390.
  4. Adewumu, A. A. (2014). Moringao leifera (Lam) as a Protein Supplement in Clariasgariepinus Diet. Advances in Research. 2(11): 580-589.
  5. Adewusi, S.R.A. and Bradbury, J. H. (1993). Carotenoids in cassava: comparison of open- column and HPLC methods of analysis.Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 62: 375-383
  6. Akwaowo, E.U., Ndon, B.A. and Etuk, E.U. (2000). Minerals and antinutrients in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook f.). Food Chemistry,70: 235-240.
  7. Amisah, S., Oteng, M.A. and Ofori, J.K. (2009). Growth performance of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed varying inclusion levels of Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal. Journal of Applied Sciences & Environmental Management,13:21-26. 
  8. Arumugam,M.P., Vedhanayagam,K., Doraisamy,K.A. and Narahari,D. (1989). Chemical composition and nutritive value of ghee residue for Chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 26: 119-128. 
  9. Atawodi, S.E., Mari, D., Atawodi, J.C. and Yahaya,Y. (2008). Assessment of Leucaena leucocephala leaves as feed supplement in laying hens. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7(3):317-321. 
  10. Ayoola, A.A. (2010). Replacement of fishmeal with alternative protein source in aquaculture diets. Thesis Degree of Master of Science Faculty of North California State University, North Carolina, USA.
  11. Babayeni, O. J., Ifut, O.J.U., Inyang, A. and Isaac, L.J.V. (2010). Quality and chemical composition of cassava wastes ensiled with Albiziasaman pods. Agricultural Journal. 5: 225-228.
  12. Barcelo, P. M. and Barcelo, J. R. (2012). The potential of Samanea saman (Jack) Merr. Pods as feed for goats. International Journal of Zoology Research.2(1): 40 - 43.
  13. Chanda, S., Paul, B.N., Ghosh, K. and Giri, S.S. (2015). Dietary essentiality of trace minerals in aquaculture-A Review. Agricultural Reviews,36(2):100-112.DOI:10.5958/0976-0741.2015.00012.4
  14. Cheng, Z.J. and Hardy, R.W. (2000). Nutritional value of diets containing distillers dried grain with solubles for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of The World Aquaculture Society,15: 101–113.
  15. Choudhary, S.B., Sharma, H.K., Karmakar, P.G., Kumar, A.A., Saha, A.R., Hazra, P. and Mahapatra, B.S. (2013). Nutritional profile of cultivated and wild jute (Corchorus) species. Australian Journal of Crop Science,13: 1973-1982.
  16. DAHAD.(2015-16). Annual Report, 2015-16. Department of Animal Husbandry and Fisheries, Govt. of India pp.65.
  17. Dansi, A., Adjatin, A., Adoukonou-Sagbadja, H., Falade, V., Yedomonhan, H., Odou, D. and Dossou, B. (2008). Traditional leafy vegetable and their use in the benin republic. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution,55: 1239-1256.
  18. Das, A.K., Sahu, R., Dua, T.K., Bag, S., Gangopadhyay, M., Sinha, M.K. and Dewanjee S. (2010). Arsenic-induced myocardial injury: protective role of Corchorus olitorius leaves. Food and Chemical Toxicology,48:1210-7.
  19. Das,S, Paul,B.N., Sengupta, J. and Datta, A.K. (2009) Beneficial effects of fish oil to human health: A review. Agricultural Reviews,30 (3)199-205. 
  20. Devendra, C. (1980). Non-conventional feed resources in Asia and the Far East. MARDI, Serdang Slangor, Malaysia. 
  21. Devendra, C. (1989). Shrubs and tree fodders for farmed animals. Proceeding of workshop in Denpasar, Indonesia, 24-29 July, p. 1-254. 
  22. Esuoso, K. U. (1996). The nutritive value of monkey pod (Samanea saman). Rivista Italian adelle Sostanze Grasse, 73: 165-168.
  23. FAO. (2014). (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). Food Outlook Biannual report on global food markets.
  24. FAO.(2011). Fisheries and Aquaculture Department. World Aquaculture 2010. [Online]. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/014/    ba0132e/ba0132e.pdf [Accessed 18 December 2012].
  25. Farah, W., Nazaratulmawarina, R. and Fatimah, C. (2006). The in vitro antibacterial activity of Corchorus olitorius extracts. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2: 213-215.
  26. Flores, E. M. (2002). Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr. In: Tropical Tree Seed Manual. Agriculture Hand book 721 [J.A. Vozzo (ed.)]. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.
  27. Francis G., Makkar, HPS and Becker K. (2001).Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture.199:197-227
  28. Gallagher, M. L. (1994). The use of soybean meal as a replacement for fish meal in diets for hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrgsopes). Aquaculture. 126: 119-127.
  29. Gandhi, K., Pawar, N., Kumar, A. and Arora, S. (2013). Effect of Vidarikand (Extracts on Oxidative Stability of Ghee: A Comparative Study. Research and Reviews. Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2(1): 1-11.
  30. Ghatnekar, S.D., Auti, D.G. and Kamat, V.S. (1983). Feeding Leucaena to Mozambique tilapia and Indian major carps. In: Leucaena Research in the Asia-Pacific Region. Proceedings of a workshop held in Singapore, IDRC, Ottawa, Canada. 61-63.
  31. Gomes, E., Souza, S.R., Grandi, R.P. and Silva, R.D. (2005). Production of thermostable glucoamylase by newly isolated Asper gillus    flavus A1.1 and thermomyces Lanuginosus A13.37. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 36: 75-82.
  32. Gomes, S.Z. and de Correia, E.S. (1996). Effect of substituting maize with cassava meal on voluntary intake of DM by Malaysian prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii De Man, 1879). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia. 25(4):595–604.
  33. Hasan, M.R., Moniruzzaman, M. and Farooque, A.M. (1990). Evaluation of leucaena and water hyacinth leaf meal as dietary protein sources of the fry of Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), In: Proceedings of the Second Asian Fisheries Forum. [R. Hirano and I. Hanyu (Eds.)], Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, Philippines: 275-278.
  34. HtayHtay Win.(2007). Growth Stimulation in Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) by Incorporating with Spirulina in Routine Diet and the Study of Survival Rates under the Laboratory Condition. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Mandalay.
  35. Idirs, S., Yisa, J. And Ndamitso, M.M. (2009). Nutritional composition of Corchorus olitorius leaves. Animal Product. Research Advance. 5(2). http://dndoi.org/10.4314/apra,v5i2.49827.
  36. Islam, M. M. (2010). In:Jute (In Bengali version), Pub. By Dynamic Publisher. Bangladesh.
  37. Iyayi, E.A. and Losel, D. M. (2001). Protein enrichment of cassava by-products through solid state fermentation by fungi. Journal Food Technology in Africa, 6: 116-118
  38. Jackson, A.J., Capper, B.S. and Matty, A.J. (1982). Evaluation of some plant protein in complete diets for tilapia Sarotherodon mossam    bicus. Aquaculture.27: 97-109.
  39. Jana, A., Saroch, J. D. and Borana, K. (2014). Effect of spirulina as a feed supplement on survival and growth of pangasius sutchi. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies.1(5): 77-79.
  40. Kana, J.R., Defang, F. H., Mafouo, G. H., Ngouana, R., Moube,N. M. and Ninjo,J. (2012). Effect of cassva meal supplemented with a combination of palm oil and cocoa husk as alternative energy source on broiler growth. Arch Zootech. 15 (4): 17-25
  41. Kapoor, C.M. and Pal, R.N. (1979). Composition and protein efficiency ratio of ghee residue. Haryana agriculture University Journal of Research,9:275-278.
  42. Kaur, V.I. and Saxena, P.K. (2004). Incorporation of brewery waste in supplementary feed and its impact on growth in some carps. Bioresource Technology.91(1): 101-104.
  43. Khan, M., Bano, S., Javed, K., Mueed, M.A., Jais, A.M. (2006). The antinociceptive activity of Muntingia calabura aqueous extract and the involvement of L-arginine/nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in its observed activity in mice. Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology. 20:365-372.
  44. Khidzir, K.M., Noorlidah, A. and Agamuthu, P. (2010). Brewery spent grain: chemical characteristics and utilization as an enzyme substrate. Malaysian Journal of Science, 29(1): 41-51.
  45. Khieu, B., Chhay, T., Ogle, R.B. and Preston, T.R. (2005). Research on the use of cassava leaves for livestock feeding in Cambodia. Proceeding of the regional workshop on “The Use of Cassava Roots and Leaves for On- Farm Animal Feeding”, Hue, Vietnam, pp. 17-19.
  46. Kim, S. S., Rahimnejad, S., Kim, K-W. and Lee, K-J. (2013). Partial replacement of fish meal with Spirulina pacificain Diets for Parrot Fish (Oplegnathus fasciatus). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences,13: 197-204.
  47. Lacerda, C.H.F., Hayashi, C., Soares, C.M., Boscolo, W.R. and Kavata, L.C.B. (2005). Replacement of corn Zea mays L. by cassava Maniht esculentacrants meal in grass-carp Ctenopharyngodon idella fingerlings diets. Acta Scientiarum - Animal Sciences. 27(2):241–245.
  48. Leaes, E. X., Zimmermann, E., Souza, M., Ramon, A. P., Mezadri, E. T., Dal Prá, V. D., Terra, L. M., and Mazutti, M. A. (2013). Ultrasound assisted enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava waste to obtain fermentable sugars. Biosystems Engineering. 115(1): 1-6.
  49. Li, M. H., Oberle, D. F. and Lucas, P. M. (2011). Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque). Aquaculture Research.42: 1424-1430.
  50. Li, M.H., Robinson, E.H, Oberle, D.F. and Lucas, P.M. (2010). Effects of various corn distillers by-products on growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Aquaculture Nutrition, 16:188–193.
  51. Lim, C., Erchao,Li. and Klesius, Phillip H. (2011). Distiller’s dried grains with solubles as an alternative protein source in diets of tilapia. Reviews in Aquaculture.3: 172-178.
  52. Lim,C., Yildirim-Aksoy, M. and Klesius, P.H. (2009). Growth response and resistance to Edwardsiella ictaluri Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, fed diets containing distiller’s dried grains with soluble. Journal of The World Aquaculture Society,40: 182-193.
  53. Lim,C. and Yildirim-Aksoy, M. (2008). Distillers Dried Grains with soluble as an alternative protein source in fish feeds. 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. pp.67-81. 
  54. Lim, C., Garcia, J. C., Yildirim-Aksoy, M., Klesius,P. H. Shoemaker, C. A. and Evans, J.J. (2007). Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing distiller’s dried grains with solubles. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society.38: 231–237.
  55. Loganathan, R., Shamsudeen, P., Mani, K., Edwin, S.C. and Rajendran, K. (2015). Utilization of ghee residue in the diet of broiler chicken. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 15:121-128.
  56. Magouz, F. I., Eweedah,.N. M., Khalafalla, M. M and Seham, A. Abouzeid. (2016). Nutritional evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaves as unconventional feed stuff in the diets of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochrom isniloticus) fingerlings. Journal of AgricultureResearc. Kafr El-Sheikh Univ,42(4): 144-155.
  57. Mamat, N. Z., Md. Affendi, I. S., Ahmad Nadzri, S. N. (2017). Partial replacement of fish meal by white leadtree meal in diets for juveniles of Giant River Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (De Man, 1879). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 5(2): 154-157. 
  58. Middendrop, A.J. (1995). Pond Farming of Nile tilapia, Oreochromisniloticus in Northern Cameroon. Aquaculture Research.26:715-722.
  59. Mussatto. S.I. (2009). Biotechnological Potential of Brewing Industry By- Products. In: Singh nee’ Nigam, P. and Pandey, A. (eds.). Biotechnology for Agro-Industrial Residues Utilization, Springer, 313-326. DOI 10.1007/978-1-4020-9942-716.
  60. Mussatto, S.I.,Dragone, G. and Roberto, I.C. (2006). Brewers’s spent grain: generation, characteristics and potential applications. Journal Cereal Science,43(1): 1-14.
  61. Muzinic, L.A., Thompson, K.R., Morris, A., Webster, C.D., Rouse, D.B. and Manomaitis, L. (2004). Partial and total replacement of fish meal with soybean meal and brewers’ grains with yeast in practical diets for Australian red claw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Aquaculture, 230: 359-376.
  62. Nakagawa, H. and Montgomery, W.L. (2007). Algae. In:, Dietary supplements for the health and quality of cultured fish. [Nakagawa H, Sato M, Gatlin D III (Eds.)] CABI Publishing, Cambridge, 133–167.
  63. Nandeesha, M.C., Gangadhara, B., Varghese, T.J. and Keshavanath, P. (1998). Effect of feeding Spirulina platensison the growth, proximate composition and organoleptic quality of common carp, Cyprinuscarpio. Aquaculture Research, 29: 305-312. 
  64. Nandeesha, M.C., Gangadhara, B., Manissery, J.K. and Venkataraman, L.V. (2001). Growth performance of two Indian major carps, catla (Catla catla) and rohu (Labeo rohita) fed diets containing different levels of Spirulina platensis. Bioresource Technology,80: 117-120.
  65. Nishiumi, S., Yabushita, Y., Fukuda, I., Mukai, R., Yoshida, K. andAshida, H.(2006).Molokhia (Corchorusolitorius L.) extract suppresses transformation ofthe aryl hydrocarbon receptor induced by dioxins. Food Chemical Toxicology,44:250-60.
  66. Nnaji, J.C., Okoye, F.C. and Omeje, V.O. (2010). Screening of leaf meals as feed supplements in the culture of Oreochro misniloticus. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development.10(2):2112–2123.
  67. Offoh, I. A. (2011). The effect of supplementing Samaneasaman pods and Moringa Oleifera leaves in the diet of sheep under semi-    intensive system of management. BSc. Agriculture Dissertation, Department of Animal Science, K.N.U.S.T., Ghana.
  68. Ogbe, A.O. and Affiku, J.P. (2012). Proximate study, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Moringaoleifera leaves harvested from Lafia, Nigeria: Potential benefits in poultry nutrition and health. Journalof Microbiology Biotechnology and Food Science,    1(3):296-308.
  69. Oliva-Teles, A. and Goncalves, P.(2001). Partial replacement of fish meal by brewers yeast, Saccaromyces cerevisae, in diets for sea bass, Dicentrarchuslabrax, juveniles. Aquaculture, 202:269–278.
  70. Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Dominguez-Cen, L.J., Olivera-Castillo, L. and Martínez-Palacios C.A. (1998). Effect of the use of the microalgae Spirulina maxima as fish meal replacement in diets for tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), fry. Aquaculture Research.29: 709-715. 
  71. Onwardi, C.T., Ogungbade, A. M. and Wusu, A.D. (2009). The proximate and mineral composition of three leafyvegetables commonly consumed in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry, 3 (6): 102-107.
  72. Osman, M.F., Omar, Eglal and Nour, A.M. (1996). The use of Leucaena leaf meal in feeding Nile tilapia. Aquaculture International,4(1): 9-18.
  73. Oyedele, D.J., Asonugho, C. and Awotoye, O.O. (2006). Heavy metals in soil and accumulation by edible vegetables after phosphate fertilizer application. Electronic Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry,5: 1446-1453.
  74. Palmegiano, G.B., Agradi, E., Forneris, G., Gai, F., Gasco, L., Rigamonti, E., Sicuro, B. and Zoccarato, I. (2005). Spirulina as a nutrient source in diets for growing sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Aquaculture Research.16: 188-195.
  75. Pantastico, J.B. and Baldia, J.P. (1980). Ipil-ipil leaf meal as supplement feeding of Tilapia mossambicus in fin fish nutrition and fish feed technology. [Halver, J. E. and Tiews, K. (Editors)]. Heenemann, Berlin, 1, pp 587.
  76. Paul, B.N. (1999). Potentiality of non-conventional feed resources in Aquaculture Feed: A review. Agricultural Reviews, 20 (2): 129-134.
  77. Paul, B.N., Das, S., Giri, S.S., Chattopadhyay, D.N., Mandal, R.N., and Chakrabarti, P.P. (2012a). Performance of Cirrhinus mrigala Fingerlings on Feeding Dried Distillers Grain Soluble. Indian Journalof Animal Research,46(1):272-275.
  78. Paul, B.N., Chanda, S., Pandey, B.K., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Giri, S.S. (2012b). Evaluation of ghee residue as aquaculture feed in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Proc. 25th National Convention of Agril. Engrs., IEI, WBSC, Kolkata. pp: 112-115.
  79. Paul, B. N. and Giri, S.S. (2015). Freshwater aquaculture nutrition research in India.Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition,32 (2):113-125. 
  80. Philips, A.M., Hammer, G.L., Edwards, J.P. and Hosking, H.F. (1964). Dry concentrates as complete trout foods for growth and egg production. Progressive Fish Culturist,26: 155-159.
  81. Puycha, K., Yuangsoi, B., Charoenwattanasak, S., Wongmaneeprateep, S., Niamphithak, P. and Wiriyapattanasub, P. (2017). Effect 
  82. of moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf supplementation on growth performance and feed utilization of Bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti). Agriculture and Natural Resources,51:286-291.
  83. Rath, S.C., Nayak, K.C., Mohanta, K.N., Pradhan, C., Rangacharyulu, P.V., Sarkar, S. and Giri, S.S. (2014). Nutritional evaluation of rain tree (Samanea saman) pod and its incorporation in thediet of rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton) larvae as a non-conventional feed ingredient. Indian Journalof Fisheries,61: 105-111.
  84. Rath, S.C., Nayak, K.C., Pradhan, C., Mohanty, T. K., Mohanta, K.N., Paul, B. N. and Giri, S.S. (2017). Evaluation of processed rain tree (Samanea saman) pod meal as a non-conventional ingredient in the diet of Catla catla Fry. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, 17: 323-332
  85. Ravindran, V. (1991). Preparation of cassava leaf products and their use as animal feeds.Roots, Tubers, plantain and bananas in animal feeding. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. 95:111-125
  86. Ravindran, V., Kornegay, E.T., Rajaguru, A.S.B., Potter, L.M. and Cherry, J.A. (1986). Cassava leaf meal as a replacement for coconut oil meal in broiler diets.Poultry Science, 65: 1720-1727
  87. Relwani, I. (1978). Assessment of Nutritive value of ghee residue as human dietary supplement. M.Sc. Thesis, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, India.
  88. Ritcher, N., Siddhuraju, P. and Becker, K. (2003). Evaluation of nutritional quality of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves as alternative protein source for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). Aquaculture,217: 599–611.
  89. Robinson, E.H. and Li, M.H. (2008). Replacement of soybean meal in channel catfish, Ictaluruspunctatus, diets with cottonseed meal and distillers dried grains with soluble. Journal of The World Aquaculture Society,39: 521-527.
  90. Rumsey, G. L., Kinsella, J.E., Shetty, K.J. and Hughes, S.G. (1991). Effect of high dietary concentrations of brewers dried yeast on growth performance and liver uricase in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Animal Feed Science and Technology,33:177–183.
  91. Saidu, A.N. and Jideobi, N.G. (2009). The proximate and elemental analysis of some leafy vegetables grown in Minna and Environs. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management.13(4): 21-22.
  92. Santos, M., Jimenez, J.J., Bartolome, B., Gomez-Cordoves, C. and delNozal, M.J.(2003). Variability of brewers’ spent grain within a brewery. Food Chemistry,80: 17–21.
  93. Schaeffer, T. W., Brown, M. L. and Rosentrater, K. A. (2009). Performance characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing graded levels of fuel-based Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles. Journal of Aquaculture Feed Science and Nutrition.,1(4): 78-83.
  94. Schaeffer, T. W., Brown, M. L. and Rosentrater, K. A. (2011). Effects of Dietary Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Soybean Meal on Extruded Pellet Characteristics and Growth Responses of Juvenile Yellow Perch. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 73:270-278.
  95. Shurson, J. (2003). Feeding new generation DDGS to swine. Feed Management,54(5): 17-20.
  96. Singh, P., Paul, B. N., Rana, G.C., Mandal, R.N., Chakrabarti, P.P. and Giri, S.S. (2014).Evaluation of Breweries Waste in the Feed of Catlacatla fingerlings. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition,31(2): 187-191.
  97. Singh, P., Paul, B. N., Rana, G.C., Mandal, R.N., Chakrabarti, P.P. andGiri, S.S. (2015). Evaluation of Ghee residue as feed ingredient for Labeorohita. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition,32(1): 101-107.
  98. Singh, P., Paul, B. N., Rana, G.C. and Giri, S.S. (2016). Evaluation of Jute leaf as feed ingredient for Labeo rohita fingerlings. Indian Journal of Animal Nutrition, 33(2): 203-207.
  99. Singh, P., Paul, B. N., Rana, G.C., Mandal, R.N., Chakrabarti, P.P. andGiri, S.S. (2017). Incorporation of Ghee Residue as a Feed Ingredientfor Labeo rohita Fingerlings. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology,17 : 127-136.
  100. Solomon, S.G., Ataguba, G.A.andItodo, G.E. (2017). Performance of Clarias gariepinus fed Dried Brewer’s Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for soybean meal. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism,1:1-8. DOI: 10.1155/2017/8936060
  101. Soliva, C.R., Kreuzer, M., Foidl, N., Foidl, G.,Machmuller, A. and Hess, H.D. (2005). Feeding value of whole and extracted Moringa oleifera leaves for ruminants and their effectson ruminal fermentation in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 118 (1-    2):47-62.
  102. Staples, W. G. and Elevitch, C. R. (2006). Samanea saman (rain tree) Fabaceae (legume family). In: Traditional Trees of Pacific Islands: Their Culture, Environment, and Use (Editor Elevitch C. R.). pp. 661 – 674.
  103. Stupak, M., Vandeschuren, H., Gruissem, W. and Zhang, P. (2006). Biotechnological approaches to Cassava protein improvement. Trends Food Science and Technology, 17: 634-641.
  104. Taylor, J. and Taylor, John. R.N. (2009). Some potential applications for Brewers Spent Grains the Protein-rich co-products, from sorghum lager beer brewing, 12th scientific and technical convention.
  105. Thethla Su. (2007). Effect of feed supplement with unicellular phytoorganism on the growth of fingerling Ctenopharyngodon idellus (Val., 1844). Ph.D. Thesis. University of Mandalay. 69 pp.
  106. Thole, N. S., Joshi, A. L. and Rangnekar, D. V. (1992). Nutritive evaluation of rain tree (Samanea saman) pods. Indian Journal of Animal Science,62: 270-272.
  107. Tiamiyu LO, Okomoda VT and Agbo AO. (2015). Nutritional suitability of Leucaena leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Journal of Fisheries Sciences,9(2): 1-5.
  108. Tongsiri, S., Mang-Amphan, K. and Peerapornpisal, Y. (2010). Effect of replacing fishmeal with spirulina on growth, carcass composition and pigment of the Mekong Giant Catfish. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences,2: 106-110.
  109. Ugwu, L.L.C., Asogwa, M.O. and Mgbenka, B.O. (2004). Influence of dietary levels of cassava (Manihotesculenta) peel meal on feed efficiency and productive protein value of young tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, Trewavas). Journal of Sustainable Agriculture and Environment,6(2):148–156.
  110. Wadhwa, B.K. (1997). Functional properties of ghee residue. In lecture compendium of short course on “Technological advances in dairy by-products”. Centre of Advanced Studies in Dairy Technology, NDRI, Karnal, India. pp 141-146.
  111. Webstar,C.D.,James,H.,Tidwell,Goodgame, L. and Johnsen, P.B. (1993).Growth, Body composition and Organoleptic evaluation of channel catfish Fed diets containing different percentages of distiller’s Grain with soluble.The Progressive Fish Culturist, 55:95-100.
  112. Webster, C.D., Tidwell, J.H., Goodgame, L.S., Yancey, D.H. and Mackey, L. (1992). Use of soybean meal and distillers grains with soluble as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.Aquaculture,106: 301-309.
  113. Wee, K. L. and Wang, S. S. (1987). Nutritive value of Leucaena leaf meal in pelleted feed for Nile tilapia.Aquaculture, 62(2): 97-108.
  114. Wu, Y.V.,Rosati, R.R.Sessa, D.J. and Brown, P.B.(1994). Utilization of protein-rich ethanol coproducts from corn in tilapia feed. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society,71:1041-1043.
  115. Xhou, P., Davis, D.,Lim, C.E.Aksoy,M., Paz, P. and Roy, L. A. (2010). Pond demonstration of production diets using high levels of distiller’s dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation for channel catfish. North American Journal of Aquaculture,72: 361-367.
  116. Yuangsoi, B. and Masumoto, T. (2012). Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera) partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinuscarpio). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 34(5): 479-485.
  117. Zakaria, Z.A., Somchit, M.N.,Zaiton, H., Mat, Jais, A.M., Sulaiman, M.R., Farah, W.O., Nazaratulmawarina, R. and Fatimah, C.A. (2006). The in vitro antibacterial activity of Corchorus olitorius extracts. International Journal of Pharmacology, 2: 213-215.
  118. Zerai, B. D., Fitzsimmons, M. K., Collier, J.R. and Duff, D. C. (2008). Evaluation of brewer’s waste as partial replacement of fish meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, Diets. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 39:556-564.

Global Footprints