Phonophoresis in animals- A review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1799    | Article Id: R-1799 | Page : 37-44
Citation :- Phonophoresis in animals- A review.Agricultural Reviews.2019.(40):37-44
Urfeya Mirza, Dil Mohammad Makhdoomi, Shahnaz Anjum and Waqas N. Baba urfeyamirza@gmail.com
Address : Division of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kashmir-190 001, Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Submitted Date : 14-04-2018
Accepted Date : 14-03-2019

Abstract

Phonophoresis is a transdermal drug-delivery system that uses ultrasound to enhance the delivery of topically-applied drugs. Use of ultrasound in therapeutics and drug delivery has gained importance in recent years in human-medicine while it is still a new frontier in veterinary medicine. The primary challenge in developing these systems is rooted in the wide differences in skin structure and function seen in species ranging from cats to cows. The following review focuses on the mechanism of phonophoresis and encompasses a discussion on the possible applications of phonophoresis, phonophoretic-systems used in humans and future trends to develop a drug and species-specific phonophoretic-systems. The paper concludes with a section detailing the scope of research in future in veterinary medicine. The purpose of this article is to build a theoretical foundation for understanding phonophoresis and review the efficacy of phonophoresis as a clinical treatment in physical-therapy in humans as well as in animals.

Keywords

Animals Cavitation Phonophoresis Transdermal Ultrasound.

References

  1. Arora, A., Prausnitz, M.R., Mitragotri, S. (2008). Micro-scale devices for transdermal drug delivery. Int. J. Pharm. 364:227–236.
  2. Baker, K.G., Robertson, V.J., Duck, F.A. (2001). A review of therapeutic ultrasound: biophysical effects. Phys Ther. 81:1351-1358.
  3. Becker, B.M., Helfrich, S., Baker, E., Lovgren, K., Minugh, P.A., Machan, J.T. (2005). Ultrasound with topical anesthetic rapidly decreases pain of intravenous cannulation. Acad Emerg Med. 12:289–295. 
  4. Bommannan, D., Menon, G.K., Okuyama, H., Elias, P.M., Guy, R.H. (1992). Sonophoresis. II. Examination of the mechanisms(s) of ultrasound-enhanced transdermal drug delivery. Pharmaceutical Research 9:1043-1047.
  5. Bommannan, D., Okuyama, H., Stauffer, P., Guy, R.H. (1992). Sonophoresis. I. The use of high frequency ultrasound to enhance transdermal drug delivery. Pharmceutical Research 9:559-564.
  6. Boucaud, A., Garrigue, M.A., Machet, L., Vaillant, L., Patat, F. (2002). Effect of sonication parameters on transdermal delivery of insulin to hairless rats. J Control Release. 81(1-2):113-119. 
  7. Chen, Y., Shen, Y., Guo, X., Zhang, C., Yang, W., Ma, M., Liu, S., Zhang, M., Wen, L. (2006). Transdermal protein delivery by a coadministered peptide identified Via Phage Display. Nat. Biotechnol. 24:455–460.
  8. Clarke, L., Edwards, A., Graham, E. (2004). Acoustic streaming: an in vitro study. Ultrasound Med. Biol. 30:559–562. 
  9. Dahlan, A., Alpar, O. and Murdan, S. (2005). Effect of coupling medium volume on sonophoresis of proteins through rat skin. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 57:S51-S51.
  10. Dean, H.J., Fuller, D., Osorio, J.E. (2003). Powder and particle mediated approaches for delivery of DNA and protein vaccines into the epidermis. Comparative Immunology and Microbiology of Infectious Diseases 26:373–388.
  11. Dean, H.J., Haynes, J., Schmaljohn, C. (2005). The role of particle mediated DNA vaccines in biodefense preparedness. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 57:1315–1342.
  12. Draper, D.O., Mahaffey, C., Kaiser, D., Eggett, D. and Jarmin, J. (2010). Thermal ultrasound decreases tissue stiffness of trigger points in upper trapezius muscles. Physiother Theory Pract. 26(3):167-172.
  13. Feldman, R.J., Maibach, H.I. (1967). Regional variations in percuta neous penetration of 14C cortisol in man. J. Invest. Dermatol. 48:181–183.
  14. Feldmann, R.J., Maibach, H.I., (1967). Regional variation in percutaneous penetration of 14C cortisol in man. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 48:181-183.
  15. Fellinger, K., Schmid, J., Klinik, A.N. (1954). Therapie des Chronischen (transl. Clinical experience/practise about the therapy of the chronic (illness). Gelenkreumatismus (transl. Articular Rheumatism), 549-552.
  16. Graff, K.F., Mason, W.P., Thurston, R.N. (1981). A History of Ultrasonics Hamilton M, Blackstock D. 1998. Nonlinear acoustics. San Diego, CA:Academic Press.
  17. Griffin, J.E., Touchstone, J.C. (1972). Effects of ultrasonic frequency on phonophoresis of cortisol into swine tissues. Am J Phys Med. 51:62-78. 
  18. Han, T., Das, D.B. (2015). Potential of combined ultrasound and microneedles for enhanced transdermal drug permeation: A review. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 89:312-328.
  19. Henzl, M.R. (2002). Optimizing delivery of therapeutics: percutaneous technologies. Brastisl Lek Listy. 103:144–151.
  20. Husseini, G.A., Pitt, W.G. (2008). Micelles and nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery. Adv Drug Del Rev. 60:1137-1152.
  21. Kost, J., Levy, D., Langer, R. (1990). Ultrasound as a Transdermal enhancer. In: Topical Drug Delivery Formulations: [(Osborne DW,nAmann AH, eds)]. Volume 42. Marcel Dekker Inc; New York, NY: chap 34(603-632).
  22. Larkin, J.O., Casey, G.D., Tangney, M., Cashman, J., Collins, C.G., Soden, D.M., O’Sullivan, G.C. (2008). Effective tumor treatment using optimized ultrasound mediated delivery of bleomycin. Ultrasound Med Biol. 34(3):406-413.
  23. Lauer, A.C. (1999). Percutaneous drug delivery to the hair follicle. In: Percutaneous Absorption: Drugs-Cosmetics-Mechanisms-    Methodology. [Bronaugh, R.L., Maibach, H.I. (Eds.)], Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 449–527.
  24. Leung, M.C., Ng, G.Y., Yip, K.K. (2004). Effect of ultrasound on acute inflammation of transected medial collateral ligaments. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 85(6):963-966.
  25. Mayer, C.R., Bekeredjian, R. (2008). Ultrasonic gene and drug delivery to the cardiovascular system. Adv Drug Del Rev. 60:1177-1192.
  26. Menon, G.K., Elias, P.M., (1997). Morphologic basis for a pore pathway in mammalian stratum corneum. Skin Pharmacology 10:235-246.
  27. Mills, P.C., Cross, S.E. (2006). Transdermal drug delivery: Basic principles for the veterinarian. The Veterinary Journal 172:218–233.
  28. Moe, G., Armstrong, P.W. (1986). Influence of skin site on bioavailability of nitroglycerin ointment in congestive heart failure. American Journal of Medicine 81:765-770.
  29. Monteiro-Riviere, N.A. (1998). In: Textbook of Veterinary Histology, [H.D. Dellmann, J. Eurell (Eds.)], 5th Edition, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, pp. 303–332, Chapter 16: Integument.
  30. Monteiro-Riviere, N.A., Bristol, D.G., Manning, T.O., Rogers, R.A., Riviere, J.E. (1990). Interspecies and interregional analysis of the comparative histologic thickness and laser Doppler blood flow measurements at five cutaneous sites in nine species. Journal of Investigative Dermatology 95:582-586.
  31. Oriba, H.A., Bucks, D.A., Maibach, H.I. (1996). Percutaneous absorption of hydrocortisone and testosterone on the vulva and forearm: effect of the menopause and site. British Journal of Dermatology 134:229-233.
  32. Pahade, A., Jadhav, V.M., Kadam, V.J. (2010). Sonophoresis: an overview. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 3(2):24-32.
  33. Pfaffenberger, S., Devcic-Kuhar, B., Kastl, S.P., Huber, K., Maurer, G., Wojta, J., Gottsauner-Wolf, M. (2005). Ultrasound thrombolysis. Thromb Haemost. 94(1):26-36.
  34. Pitman, I.H., Rostas, S.J. (1981). Topical drug delivery to cattle and sheep. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 70:1181-1194.
  35. Price, R.J., Kaul, S.J. (2002). Contrast ultrasound targeted drug and gene delivery: an update on a new therapeutic modality. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 7:171-180.
  36. Rao, R. and Nanda, S. (2009). Sonophoresis: recent advancements and future trends. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 61:689-705.
  37. Raymond, S.B., Treat, L.H., Dewey, J.D., McDannold, N.J., Hynynen, K., Bacskai, B.J. (2008). Ultrasound-enhanced delivery of molecular imaging and therapeutic agents in Alzheimer’s disease mouse models. PLoS ONE 3(5):e2175. 
  38. Redding, J., Bruce, K. (2005). Substance delivery device. US Patent 6908448, 21 June 2005, Dermisonics, Inc.
  39. Rehman, K., Zulfakar, M.H. (2013). Recent advances in gel technologies for topical and transdermal drug delivery. Drug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 40:433-440.
  40. Riviere, J.E., Papich, M.G. (2001). Potential and problems of developing transdermal patches for veterinary applications. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 50:175-203.
  41. Roberts, M.S., Cross, S.E., Pellett, M.A. (2002). Skin transport. In: Dermatological and Transdermal Formulations. [Walters, K.A. (Ed.)], Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 89–196.
  42. Rosenthal, I., Sostaric, J.Z., Riesz, P. (2004). Sonodynamic therapy – a review of the synergistic effects of drugs and ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem. 11(6):349-363.
  43. Rougier, A., Lotte, C., Maibach, H.I. (1987). In vivo percutaneous penetration of some organic compounds related to anatomic site in humans: predictive assessment by the stripping method. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 76:451-454.
  44. Ryder, M.L. (1957). A survey of the follicle populations in a range of British breeds of sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science 49:275-279.
  45. Sampath Kumar, K.P., Bhowmik, D., Komala, M. (2013). Transdermal sonophoresis technique- an approach for controlled drug delivery. Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology 1(3):379-381.
  46. Sato, K., Sugibayashi, K., Morimoto, Y. (1991). Species differences in percutaneous absorption of nicorandil. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 80:104-107.
  47. Schuetz, Y.B., Naik, A., Guy, R.H., Kalia, Y.N. (2005). Emerging strategies for the transdermal delivery of peptide and protein drugs. Expert Opin. Drug Deliv. 2:533-548.
  48. Shah, A.K., Wei, G., Lanman, R.C., Bhargava, V.O., Weir, S.J. (1996). Percutaneous absorption of ketoprofen from different anatomical sites in man. Pharmaceutical Research 13:168-172.
  49. Shahzad, Y., Louw, R., Gerber, M., du Plessis, J. (2015). Breaching the Skin Barrier through Temperature Modulations. J. Control. Release 202:1-13.
  50. Singh, M., Rosenschein, U., Ho. K.K., Berger, P.B., Kuntz, R., Holmes, D.R. Jr. (2003). Treatment of saphenous vein bypass grafts with ultrasound thrombolysis: A randomized study (ATLAS). Circulation 107(18):2331-2336.
  51. Skauen, D.M., Zentner, G.M. (1986). Phonophoresis. Int J Pharm. 20:235-245.
  52. Suslick, K.S. (1988). Ultrasound: Its Chemical, Physical and Biological Effects, VCH van Wamel, A. et al. (2004) Radionuclide tumour therapy with ultrasound contrast microbubbles. Ultrasonics 42:903-906.
  53. Tachibana, K., Tachibana, S. (1999). Application of ultrasound energy as a new drug delivery system. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(1):3014-3019. 
  54. Tang, H., Mitragotri, S., Blankschtein, D., Langer R. (2001). Theoretical description of transdermal transport of hydrophilic permeants: application to low frequency sonophoresis. J. Pharm. Sci. 90(5):543-566.
  55. Ter Haar, G. (2007). Therapeutic applications of ultrasound. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 93:111-129.
  56. Tezel, A., Paliwal, S., Shen, Z., Mitragotri, S. (2005). Low-frequency ultrasound as a transcutaneous immunization adjuvant. Vaccine 23(29):3800-3807.
  57. Torkar, A., Kristl, J., Murdan, S. (2007). Low frequency ultrasound to enhance topical drug delivery to the nail. Presented at: AAPS Annual Meeting and Exposition, San Diego, California, USA. 9:S2-T3221.
  58. Vogel, J.C. (2000). Nonviral skin gene therapy. Hum Gene Ther. 11:2253-2259.
  59. Walters, K.A., Roberts, M.S. (1993). Veterinary applications of skin penetration enhancers. In: Pharmaceutical Skin Enhancement. [Walters, K.A., Hadgraft, J. (Eds.)], Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 345–364.
  60. Walters, K.A., Roberts, M.S. (2002). The structure and function of skin. In: Dermatological and Transdermal Formulations. [Walters, K.A. (Ed.)], Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 1-40.
  61. Watson, T. (2008). Ultrasound in contemporary physiotherapy practice. Ultrasonics 48(4):321-329.
  62. www.dermisonics.com/accessed/ (accessed 6 August, 2008).
  63. Xin, Z., Lin, G., Lei1, H., Lue, T.F., Guo, Y. (2016). Clinical applications of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and its potential role in urology. Transl Androl Urol. 5(2):255-266.
  64. Zderic, V., Clark, J.I., Vaezy, S. (2004). Drug delivery into the eye with the use of ultrasound. J Ultrasound Med. 23(10):1349-1359.

Global Footprints