Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 39 issue 4 (december 2018) : 327-332

Pearl Millet: boon in mineral deficiency: A review

Rupesh P. Datir, Shaikh Adil, Amol S. Sahare
1National Dairy Research Institute, Southern Regional Station Institute, Bangalore-560 030, Karnataka, India.
Cite article:- Datir P. Rupesh, Adil Shaikh, Sahare S. Amol (2018). Pearl Millet: boon in mineral deficiency: A review. Agricultural Reviews. 39(4): 327-332. doi: 10.18805/ag.R-1726.
Mineral deficiency can be defined as a condition that caused due to reduced level of any of the minerals essential to human health.  Low mineral concentration may impair a function dependent on that mineral in a body. Minerals support normal growth and development through various biochemical reactions. Its deficiencies can lead to a variety of health problems, such as fatigue, weak bones or a low immunity and other disorders. A large section of today’s population is suffering from micronutrient deficiencies caused largely by deficiency of vitamins and minerals. Iron and Zinc deficiency is the most common and widespread nutritional disorder in the world, and is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries. Widespread malnutrition specially among children is of great concern as it affects child growth, cognitive development and resistance to infection. Malnutrition due to mineral deficiency is a great concern in India as large number of children are suffering mineral deficiency due to insufficient mineral rich diet. Pearl Millets is important cereal crop and provides various minerals which are required for the wellbeing of a human body. It is enriched with Iron, Zinc and other minerals and its inclusion in diet through various food products could be useful in battling mineral deficiency.
  1. Abdullahi, A.A., Tinay, A.A., Mohammed, B.E. and Abduallah, A.H. (1998). Traditional process on phytate and mineral content of pearl millet. Journal of Food Chemistry, 6(1): 79 84.
  2. ACOG, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists practice bulletin (2002). Diagnosis and management of preeclampsia and eclampsia. Number 33, January 2002. Obstet Gynecol, 99:159–67.
  3. Aggarwal, A. J. (1992). Processing of pearl millet for its more effective utilization. PhD thesis, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India. pp.183.
  4. Ali, M. A., El Tinay, A. H., and Abdalla, A. H. (2003). Effect of fermentation on the in vitro protein digestibility of pearl millet. Food Chemistry, 80(1): 51-54.
  5. Allen, L. H., De Benoist, B., Dary, O., Hurrell, R., and World Health Organization. (2006). Guidelines on food fortification with micronutrients.
  6. Andraca, I., Castillo, M., and Walter, T. (1997). Desarrollo psicomotor y conducta en lactantes anemicos por ´deficiencia de hierro. In Deficiencia de Hierro. Desnutricio´n oculta en America Latina. [A. M. O’Donnell, F. E. Viteri, & E. Carmuega (Eds.)],: CESNI. Buenos Aires.
  7. Anonymous (2013). Study finds that more nutritious pearl millet can meet full iron needs of children (    13/study-finds-that-more-nutritious-pearl-millet-can-meet-full-iron-needs-of-children/).
  8. Caballero, B., Finglas, P., and Toldrá, F. (2015). Encyclopedia of Food and Health. Academic Press.
  9. Combs Jr, G. F., and Nielsen, F. H. (2009). Health signiûcance of calcium and magnesium: Examples from human studies. Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking-water: Public Health Significance, 84.
  10. Cook, J. D., and Reusser, M. E. (1983). Iron fortification: an update. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 38(4):648-659.
  11. Deshmukh, D. S., Pawar, B. R., Yeware, P. P., and Landge, V. U. (2010). Consumer’s preference for pearl millet products. Agriculture Update, 5(1/2):122-124.
  12. Ezzati, M., Lopez, A. D., Rodgers, A., and Murray, C. J. (2004). Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. OMS.
  13. Fairweather-Tait, S. J. (1995). Iron-zinc and Calcium-Fe interactions in relation to Zn and Fe absorption. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 54(2): 465-473.
  14. FAO, (Food and Agricultural Organization). (2012). Economic and Social Department: The Statistical Division. Statistics Division 2012. Available:]. 
  15. FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Consultation (2002). Magnesium. In: Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Rome and Geneva: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization. 
  16. Finch, C. A., and Cook, J. D. (1984). Iron deficiency. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 39:471-477.
  17. Gropper S. S., Smith J. L., Groff J. L. (2009). Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, 5th edn. Cengage Learning, Wadsworth:
  18. Hamdy, M. M. (1971). Interactions between phosphates and plant proteins. In Symposium: Phosphates in Food Processing, University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
  19. Hess, S. Y., Lönnerdal, B., Hotz, C., Rivera, J. A., and Brown, K. H. (2009). Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 30(1_suppl1), S5-S11.
  20. Hofmeyr, G. J., Duley, L., and Atallah, A. (2007). Dietary calcium supplementation for prevention of pre eclampsia and related problems: a systematic review and commentary. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 114(8), 933-943.
  21. Huffman, S. L., and Martin, L. H. (1994). First feedings: optimal feeding of infants and toddlers. Nutrition Research, 14(1):127-159.
  22. ICRISAT, (2012).
  23. IFAD (1999). Farmer participatory testing of technologies to increase sorghum and pearl millet production in the Sahel. (    grants).
  24. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press. Washington:
  25. Kaushik I. and Grewal R. B. (2017). Antinutrient and mineral content of thirteen different varieties of pearl millet locally grown in Haryana, India. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App.Sci. 6(5): 2136- 2143. doi:
  26. Léder, I., (2004). Sorghum and millets, In: Cultivated Plants, Primarily as Food Sources, [Ed. György Füleky], in Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO, Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, [http://www.]. pp. 1-12.
  27. Lonnerdal, B. (2000). Dietary factors influencing zinc absorption. The Journal of nutrition, 130(5), 1378S-1383S.
  28. Mac Masters, M. M., Hinton, J. J. C., and Bradbury, D. O. (1971). Microscopic structure and composition of the wheat kernel. Pomeranz, Y. Wheat; chemistry and technology.
  29. Malathi, B., Appaji, C., Reddy, G. R., Dattatri, K., and Sudhakar, N. (2016). Growth pattern of millets in India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(4), 382-386.
  30. Martínez, C., Ros, G., Periago, M. J., and López, G. (1999). Biodisponibilidad del hierro de los alimentos. Arch Latinoam Nutr, 49(2), 106-13.
  31. McDowell L. R. (2003). Minerals in Animal and Human Nutrition, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Philadelphia.
  32. Milner, J. A. (1990). Trace minerals in the nutrition of children. Journal of Pediatrics, 117, S147155.
  33. Muthayya, S., Rah, J. H., Sugimoto, J. D., Roos, F. F., Kraemer, K., and Robert, R. E. (2013). The global hidden hunger indices and maps: an advocacy tool for action. PLoSOne, 8(6), e67860. Available from
  34. Nampoothery, M. M. (2004). All-India area, production and yield of bajra from 1950-51 to 2003-04 along with percentage coverage under irrigation. In: Agricultural Statistics at a Glance. Agricultural Statistics Division, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Dept. of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi. pp. 54-55.
  35. NIN (2007). Nutritive Value of Indian Foods. National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.
  36. Norwitz, E. R., Robinson, J. N., and Repke, J. T. (1999). Prevention of preeclampsia: is it possible?. Clinical obstetrics and gynecology,    42(3), 436.
  37. O’Dell B. L., and Sunde R. A. (1997). Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements. Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York:
  38. Offenbacher E. G., Pi-Sunyer F. X., Stoecker B. J. Chromium (1997). In: Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Mineral Elements. [O’Dell B. L., Sunde R. A., eds] Marcel Dekker; New York: pn.389.
  39. Ragaee, S., Abdel-Aal, E. S. M., and Noaman, M. (2006). Antioxidant activity and nutrient composition of selected cereals for food use. Food chemistry, 98(1), 32-38.
  40. Rhode, J., (1994). 5,000 malnutrition deaths daily in India. The Times of India. New Delhi: UNICEF.
  41. Simwemba, C. G., Hoseney, R. C., Varriano-Marston, E., and Zeleznak, K. (1984). Certain B vitamin and phytic acid contents of pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 32(1), 31-34.
  42. Singh J., Pandey K. (2018). Why India remains malnourished.    -42697.
  43. Tulchinsky, T. H. (2010). Micronutrient deficiency conditions: global health issues. Public Health Reviews, 32(1), 243.

Editorial Board

View all (0)