Wetlands: The living waters-A review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-1717    | Article Id: R-1717     | Page : 122-129  
Citation :- Wetlands: The living waters-A review.Agricultural Reviews.2018.(39):122-129

S.R. Arya and Elizabeth K. Syriac

S.R. Arya and Elizabeth K. Syriac aaryanarayan@gmail.com
Address : Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Vellayani, Thiruvananthapuram- 695 522, Kerala, India.
Submitted Date : 24-04-2017
Accepted Date : 10-03-2018


Wetlands are the link between land and water which provide imperative services to living forms. There are different kinds of wetlands around the world performing vivacious functions like water conservation, food supply, cultural value, biodiversity hotspots, pollution abatement etc. Nevertheless, increasing human population has lead to urbanization and land use changes resulting in climate change and pollution and ultimately in wetland destruction. Henceforth, conservation of wetlands is significant; for that at the international level Ramsar convention was steered and selected most important wetlands in the world which are under destruction. India has 26 Ramsar sites. Particulars regarding different kinds of wetlands, its significance, conservation and major wetlands in India are reviewed in this paper.


Conservation Ramsar Wetlands management.


  1. Agarwal, M. (2011). Migratory birds in India: migratory birds dwindling. Nature, 128p.
  2. Barbier, E.B., Acreman, M., and Knowler, D. (1997). Economic valuation of wetland: A guide for policy makers and planners, Ramsar Convention Bureau Gland, Switzerland. 158p.
  3. Bassi, N. and Kumar, M.D. (2012). Addressing the civic challenges: perspective on institutional change for sustainable urban water management in India. Environ. Urban. Asia 3 (1): 165–183.
  4. BBC News. (2016). Peru investigates death of 10,000 Titicaca water frogs. Available: http://www.bbc.com/news/world- latin-america-    37686285. [02-11-2016].
  5. Boyd, J. and Banzhaf, S. (2007). What are ecosystem services? The need for standardized environmental accounting units. Ecological Economics 63 (2–3): 616–626.
  6. Bystrom, O., Andersson, H., and Gren, I. (2000). Economic criteria for using wetlands as nitrogen sinks under uncertainty. Ecological Economics 35 (1): 35–45.
  7. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE). (2012). Living with Changing Climate: Impact, Vulnerability and Adaptation Challenges in Indian Sundarbans. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi.
  8. Clark and John R. (1977). Coastal Ecosystem Management, A Wiley Interscience Publication, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 928p. 
  9. Constanza, R., d’Arga, R., Degroot, R., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K., Naeem, S., O’Neil, R.V., Paruelo, J., Raskin, R.G., Sutton, P. Vanden Belt, M. (1997). The value of worlds’s ecosystem and natural capital. Nature, 387: 253-260.
  10. Encyclopaedic Directory of Environment. (1988). (Ed. By G.R. Chatwal, D.K. Pandey, and K.K. Nanda). Vol. I-IV, Anmol Publications, New Delhi. 
  11. ENVIS Centre on NGO and Parliament. (2015). State-wise List of Wetlands in India. Available:
  12. http://www.wwfenvis.nic.in/Database/State-wise_4470.aspx [02-01-2015].
  13. Erwin, K.L. (2009). Wetlands and global climate change: the role of wetland restoration in a changing world. Wetlands Ecology and Management, 17 (1): 71–84.
  14. FAO. (2000). Production year book, Vol. 50. Rome.
  15. FAO. (2007). The world’s mangroves 1980-2005. Forestry Paper No. 153, Rome, 77p.
  16. Ghermandi, A., van den Bergh, J.C.J.M., Brander, L.M., and Nunes, P.A.L.D. (2008). The Economic Value of Wetland Conservation and Creation: A Meta-Analysis. [Working Paper 79]. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan, Italy. 356p.
  17. Gopal, B., Shilpakar, R., and Sharma, E. (2010). Functions and Services of Wetlands in the Eastern Himalayas: Impacts of ClimateChange [Technical Report 3]. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Kathmandu, Nepal.
  18. Groffman, P.M. and Crawford, M.K. (2003). Denitrification potential in urban riparian zones. Journal of Environmental Quality 32 (3): 1144–1149.
  19. Husain, A. and Bhatnagar, P. (2013). Wetland and role in water conservation. A ligarghmuslm University, Aligargh. 17p. 
  20. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Special Report on Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry: Summary for Policymakers. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Geneva, Switzerland. 
  21. Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH). (1998). Delhi’s Dying Water Bodies. Indian National Trust for Artand Cultural Heritage, New Delhi.
  22. Indian Institute of Technology [IIT]. (2011). Trends in Agriculture and Agricultural Practices in Ganga Basin: An Overview. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. 
  23. Lal, R. (2008). Carbon sequestration. Philosophical Transaction of the Royal Society, 363 (1): 815–830.
  24. Liu, J.G. and Diamond, J. (2005). China’s environment in a globalizing world. Nature, 435 (June), 1179–1186.
  25. Margerete, L.M., Carter, V., Golet, E.C. and La Roe. (1974). Classification of wetlands and deep water habitats. USFWS/085-79/31, Office of the Biological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., 109p. 
  26. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA). (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
  27. Mitsch, W.J. and Gosselink, J.G. (1986). Wetlands. Van Nostrand Reinhold. New York. pp.539.
  28. Mitsch, W.J. and Gosselink, J.G. (2000). The value of wetlands: Importance of scale and landscape settings. Ecological Economics 35 (1):25-33.
  29. MoEF [Ministry of Environment and Forests], Government of India. (2010). National Wetland Atlas, Kerala. Space Application Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad. 146p.
  30. MoEF [Ministry of Environment and Forests]. (2012). Annual Report 2011–2012. MoEF, Government of India, New Delhi. 391p.
  31. Mohandas, M., Lekshmy, S., and Radhakrishnan, T. (2014). Kerala Mangroves– Pastures of Estuaries – Their Present Status and Challenges. International Journal of Science and Research, 3 (11):2804-2809. 
  32. Molur, S., Smith, K.G., Daniel, B.A., Darwall, W.R.T. (2011). The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in the WesternGhats, India. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Cambridge and Gland.
  33. Pant, H.K., Rechcigl, J.E. and Adjei, M.B. (2003). Carbon sequestration in wetlands: concept and estimation. Food and Agricultural Environment, 1 (2): 308–313.
  34. Patel, J.G., Murthy, T.V.R., Singh, T.S. and Panigrahy, S. (2009). Analysis of the distribution pattern of wetlands in India in relation to climate change. In: [Panigrahy, S., Shankar Ray, S., Parihar, J.S. (Eds.)], Proceedings of the Works shop on Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture. Ahmedabad, India, 17–18 December. International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Ahmedabad.
  35. Planning Commission Report. (2008). Report on visit to Vembanad Kol, Kerala. 29 June-1st July. 22p.
  36. Prasad, S.N., Ramachandra, T.V., Ahalya, N., Sengupta, T., Kumar, A., Tiwari, A.K., Vijayan, V.S., and Vijayan, L. (2002). Conservation of wetlands of India – a review. Tropical Ecology, 43 (1): 173–186.
  37. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. (2012). September. The Annotated Ramsar List: India. [Briefing Note]. The Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands, Gland, Switzerland.
  38. Ramsar Secretariat. (2013). The List of Wetlands of International Importance. The Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands, Gland, Switzerland. 
  39. Reid, George K and Wood, Richard D. (1976). Ecology of Inland Waters and Estuaries. D. Van Nostrand Company, New York, 485p.
  40. Report on Visit to Chilika Lake, Orissa, a wetland included under the National Wetland Conservation and Management Programme of the Ministry of Environment and Forests. 24-26 June 2008.
  41. SFR (State Forest Report). (2009). Forest Survey of India 2007. India State of Forest Report, Dehradun, pp. 27-31.
  42. Singh, A.K., Ansari, A., Kumar, D., and Sakar, U.K. (2012). Status, Biodiversity and Distribution of Mangroves in India: An overview. Utharpradesh State Biodiversity Board. pp.59-67.
  43. Sinha, C.P. (2011). Climate change and its impacts on the wetlands of North Bihar, India. Lakes Reserv.: Resource Management, 16 (2): 109–111.
  44. SAC (Space Applications Centre). (2011). National Wetland Atlas. SAC, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad. 246p. 
  45. ten Brink, P., Badura, T., Farmer, A., and Russi, D. (2012). The Economics of Ecosystem and Biodiversity for Water and Wetlands: A Briefing Note. Institute for European Environmental Policy, London. 112p.
  46. Tomlinson, B. P. (1986). The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, USA.
  47. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). (2007). Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage. UNESCO World Heritage Centre, France.
  48. UNESCO – IUCN Enhancing Our Heritage Project : Monitoring and Managing for Success in Natural World Heritage Sites. Initial Management Effectiveness Evaluation Report: Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur, India, July 2003. 81p.
  49. Verhoeven, J.T.A., Arheimer, B., Yin, C., Hefting, M.M. (2006). Regional and global concerns over wetlands and water quality. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 21 (2): 96–103.
  50. Wetlands Rules (2010). Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, New Delhi (2010).
  51. Wylynko, D. (Ed.). (1999). Prairie Wetlands and Carbon Sequestration: Assessing Sinks Under the Kyoto Protocol. InternationalInstitute for Sustainable Development, Manitoba, Canada.

Global Footprints