Loading...

Breeding for submergence tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its management for flash flood in rainfed low land area: A review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.v38i02.7938    | Article Id: R-1634 | Page : 167-179
Citation :- Breeding for submergence tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and its management for flash flood in rainfed low land area: A review.Agricultural Reviews.2017.(38):167-179
Pradhan Biswajit, Kundu Sritama, Santra Anindya, Sarkar Moushree and Kundagrami Sabyasachi geneticsbisu@gmail.com
Address : Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Institute of Agricultural Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata -700 019, West Bengal, India.
Submitted Date : 25-06-2016
Accepted Date : 9-05-2017

Abstract

For rainfed low land paddy ecosystems which is supposed to withstand the sudden rise of water level for short period of time i.e. up to two weeks has been considered as the submergence tolerant. Proper screening and evaluation method are very important for cost effective and economic breeding procedures that will benefits the farmers. The agro morphological characters which are responsible for submergence tolerance; character association and  path coefficient analysis will be very much useful to select them for further assessment. Hybrid rice will be another approach which could mitigate the flash flood constraints. Proper understanding of anatomical characters such as aerenchyma formation and changes of diameter of aerenchyma of root, shoot and leaf will be very much important for submergence tolerance if it is linked with genetic factors. Biochemical manipulation of different plant hormone such as gibberellic acid, abscisic acid and  ethylene; enzyme like alcohol dehydrogenase synthesis; chlorophyll content and non structural carbohydrate content of shoot has significant role for enhancement of survival during underwater growth. Plant extracts or herbal crude product in the form of dry and wet treatments along with proper growth nutrients will be a holistic approach for sustainable and integrated agriculture and will be a tool for crop improvement in future breeding programme for submergence tolerance in rice.

Keywords

Aerenchyma diameter Biochemical factors Character association Flash flooding Herbal treatment Hybridization Screening.

References

  1. Adkins, S.W., Shiraishi, T. and McComb, J.A. (1990). Submergence tolerance of rice – A new glasshouse method for the experimental submergence of plants. Physiol. Plant. 80: 642-646
  2. Ahmed, N. and Shultana, K. (1984). Fungi toxic efficacy of garlic treatment on jute seed. Bangladesh Journal of Botany.13: 130-136
  3. Akinwale, A.G., Gregorio, G., Nwilene, F., Akinyele, B.O., Ogunbayo S.A. and Odiyi, A.C. (2011). Heritability and correlation coefficient analysis for yield and its components in rice (Oryza sativa L.). African Journal of Plant Science. 5: 207-212 
  4. Akinwale, M. G., Akinyele, B. O., Odiyi, A. C., Nwilene, F., Gregorio, G. and Oyetunji, O. E. (2012). Phenotypic Screening of Nigerian Rainfed Lowland Mega Rice Varieties for Submergence Tolerance. Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, London, U.K. (I)
  5. Arash, R. K., Philip. and S. Muniandy. (2010). Antioxidant potential and content of phenolic compounds in ethanolic extracts of selected parts of Andrographis paniculata. J.medicinal Plant Res. 4(3): 197-202
  6. Armstrong, W. (1979). Aeration in higher plants. Advances in Botanical Research. 7: 236-332
  7. Ashura, L.K. (1998). Inter-relationship between yield and some selected agronomic characters in rice. African Crop Science Journal. 6(3):323-328
  8. Castermiller, J.J.M., Linssen, J.P.H., Heinonen I.M., Hopia, A.I., Schwarz, K., Hollmann, P.C.H. and West, C.E. (2002). Antioxidant properties of differently processed spinach products. Nahrung / Food. 46(4): 290-293
  9. Catling, D. (1992). Rice in Deep Water. Macmillan London
  10. Chakraborty, S., Das, P.K., Guha, B., Sarmah, K.K. and Barman, B. (2010). Quantitative Genetic Analysis for Yield and Yield Components in Boro Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Not Science Biology.2 (1): 117-120
  11. Chandra, K., Dey, S.C. and Dey, P. (1990). IET 8717, a physiologically efficient rice variety for waterlogged areas of Assam. Int. Rice Res. Notes.15: 5
  12. Chowdhury, R. and Mandal, A.K. (2012). Efficacy of Seed Treatments on the Storability of High-Medium-Vigour Andographis seeds (Andographis paniculata L.). Indian Agriculturist. 56 (1&2): 27-31
  13. Chung, H. J. and Ferl, R.J. (1999). Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment. Plant Physiology. 121: 429–436
  14. Colmer, T.D. and Voesenek, L.A.C.J. (2009). Flooding tolerance: suites of plant traits in variable environments. Functional Plant Biology. 36: 665-68
  15. Das, D. and Jat, R. (1977). Influences of three soil water regimes on root porosity and growth of four rice varieties. Agronomy Journal. 69: 197–210
  16. Das, K. K., Sarkar, R. K. and Ismail, A. M. (2005). Elongation ability and non-structural carbohydrate levels in relation to submergence tolerance in rice. Plant Sci. 168: 131–136
  17. Das, K.K. and Sarkar, R. K. (2001). Post flood changes on the status of chlorophyll, carbohydrate and nitrogen content and its association with submergence tolerance in rice. Plant Arch. 1: 15–19
  18. Das, M., Sarkar, M., Roychoudhury, D. and Kundagrami, S. (2012). Screening for salinity tolerance and its management in Chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Trend in Biosciences. 5: 129-132
  19. Das, R.K., Kanp, U.K. and Bhattacharjee, A. (2003). Influence of plant extracts of Eucalyptus, turmeric and ginger on seed potentiation of mung bean cultivar. Environment & Ecology. 21: 599-606
  20. De, B. K., Mandal, A. K. and Basu, R. N. (2003). Seed invigoration treatments on different seed sizes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for improved storability and field performance. Seed Science and Technology. 31: 379-388
  21. Dewy, R.D. and Lu, K.H. (1959). A correlation and path coefficient analysis of components of crested wheat grass seed production. Journal of Agronomy. 51: 515-518 
  22. Dey, M.M. and Upadhyaya, H.K. (1996). Yield Loss Due to Drought, Cold and Submergence Tolerance. In: Evenson, R.E., Herdt, R.W. and Hossain, M., editors. Rice Research in Asia: Progress and Priorities. UK: International Rice Research Institute in Collaboration with CAB International
  23. Dingkuhn, M., De Datta, S.K., Pamplona, R., Javellana, C. and Schnier. H.F. (1992). Effects of late-season N-fertilization on photosynthesis and yield of transplanted and direct-seeded tropical flooded rice. Field Crop Res. 28: 235–249
  24. Dudley, J.W. and Moll, R.H. (1969). Interpretation and use of estimates of heritability and genetic variances in plant breeding. Crop Sci. 9: 257–262
  25. Ella, E. S., Kawano, N., Yamauchi, Y., Tanaka, K. and Ismail, A. M. (2003). Blocking ethylene perception enhances flooding tolerance in rice seedlings. Funct. Plant Biol. 30: 813–819
  26. Ella, E.S. and Ismail, A.M. (2006). Seedling Nutrient Status before Submergence Affects Survival after Submergence in Rice.Crop sci. 46: 1673-1681
  27. Elmo, M.B.J. (1976). A Potent Inhibitor of Ethylene Action in Plants. Plant Physiol. 58: 268-271
  28. Fauconneau, B., Waffo, P.T., Huguet, F., Barrier, L., Decendit, A. and Merillon, J.M. (1997). Scavenger and antioxidant properties of astringin and phenolic compounds extracted from Vitis vinifera cell cultures. Life Sci. 61: 2103-2110
  29. George, L.S., Richard, M.B., Michael, S.R. and Linda, L. D. (1993). Efficacies of Commercial Anti-ethylene Products for Fresh Cut Flowers, Hort Technology. 199-202
  30. Gianinetti, A., Laarhoven, L.J.J., Persijn, S.T.P., Harren, F.J.M. and Petruzzelli, L. (2007). Ethylene Production is Associated with Germination but not Seed Dormancy in Red Rice. Annals of Botany. 99: 735-745
  31. Girish, T.N., Gireesha, T.M., Vaishali, M.G., Hanamareddy and Hittalmani, S. (2006). Response of a new IR50/Moroberekan recombinant inbred population of rice (Oryza sativa L) from an indica x japonica cross for growth and yield traits under aerobic conditions. Journal Euphytica. 152(2): 149-161 
  32. Greenway, H. and Setter, T.L. (1996). Is there anaerobic metabolism in submerged rice plants? a view point. In: Singh VP et al (ed) Physiology of stress tolerance in rice: Proceedings of the international conference on stress physiology of rice, IRRI. 11-30
  33. Hairmansis, A., Kustianto, B., Supartopo and Suwarno. (2010). Correlation analysis of agronomic characters and grain yield of rice for tidal swamp areas. Indonesian Journal of Agricultural Science. 11: 11-15
  34. Hall, J. and G. E. Harman. (1991). Protection of stored legume seeds against attack by storage fungi and weevils: mechanism of action of lipoidal and oil seed treatments. Crop Protection. 10: 375-320
  35. Haque, M.E., Abe, F. and Kawaguchi, K. (2010). Formation and extension of lysigenous aerenchyma in seminal root cortex of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Bobwhite line SH 98 26) seedlings under different strengths of water logging. Plant Root. 4: 31-39 
  36. Hattori, Y., Nagai, K. and Ashikari, M. (2011). Rice growth adapting to deepwater. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 14: 100-105
  37. He, C.J., Finlayson, S.A., Drew, M.C., Jordan, W.R. and Morgan, P.W. (1996). Ethylene biosynthesis during aerenchyma formation in roots of maize subjected to mechanical impedance and hypoxia. Plant Physiol. 112:1679–1685
  38. Hernandez, J.A., Ferrer, M.A., Jimenez, A., Barcelo, A.R. and Sevilla, S. (2001). Antioxidant systems and O2/H2O2 production in the apoplast of pea leaves. Its relation with salt induced necrotic lesions in minor veins. Plant Physiol. 127: 817-831
  39. Heydecker, W. (1960). Can we measure seedling vigor? Proc Int Seed Test Assoc. 25: 498–512
  40. Hossain, M. and Laborte, A. (1996). Differential growth in rice production in eastern India: agro ecological and socio-economic constraints. Physiology of Stress Tolerance of Rice, NDUAT and IRRI, Los Banos, The Philippine. 221–239
  41. Huke, R. and Huke, E. (1997). Rice area by type of culture: south, southeast and east Asia. A revised and updated database. Manila (Philippines): International Rice Research Institute.
  42. International Rice Research Notes. (1986). 11(6)
  43. Ismail, A.M., Ella, E.S., Vergara, G.V. and Mackill, D.J. (2009). Mechanisms associated with tolerance to flooding during germination and early seedling growth in rice (Oryza sativa). Annals of Botany.103:197–209
  44. Ito, O., Ella, E. and Kawano, N. (1999). Physiological basis of submergence tolerance in rainfed lowland rice ecosystem. Field Crops Research. 64: 75–90
  45. Jackson, M. B. and Ram, P. C. (2003). Physiological and molecular basis of susceptibility and tolerance of rice plants to complete submergence. Ann. Bot. 91: 227–241
  46. Jackson, M.B. and Pearce, D.M.E. (1991). Hormones and morphological adaptation to aeration stress in rice. In: Jackson MB, Davies DD, Lambers H, eds. Plant life under oxygen deprivation. Ecology, physiology and biochemistry. The Hague: SPB Academic, 47–68
  47. Johnson, H.W., Robinson, H.F. and Comstock, R.E.(1955). Estimation of genetic and environmental variability in soybeans. Agronomy Journal. 47: 314-318
  48. Johnson, J. R., Cobb, B.G. and Drew, M.C. (1994). Hypoxic induction of anoxia tolerance in roots of Adh1 null Zea mays. Plant Physiology. 105: 61–67
  49. Jones, D.B. and Peterson, L. (1976). Rice seedling vigor and suboptimal temperatures. Crop Sci. 16: 102–105
  50. Justin, S.H.F. and Armstrong, W. (1991). Evidence for the involvement of ethane in aerenchyma formation in adventitious roots of rice (Oryza sativa L.). New Phytologist. 118: 49-62
  51. Kaur, C. and Kapoor, H.C. (2001). Review: Antioxidants in fruits and vegetables the millennium’s health. Int. J. Food Sci. and Technol. 36: 703-725
  52. Kawano, N.; Ito, O. and Sakagami, J.I. (2009). Morphological and physiological responses of rice seedlings to complete submergence (flash flooding). Annals of Botany. 103(2): 161–169
  53. Kende, H., Knaap, E.V.D. and Cho, H.T. (1998). Deep water rice: a model plant to study stem elongation. Plant Physiol. 118: 1105–1110
  54. Khan, A.S., Imran, M., and Ashfaq, M. (2009). Estimation of genetic variability and correlation for grain yield components in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 6(5): 585-590 
  55. Kole, P.C., Chakraborty, N.R. and Bhat, J.S. (2008). Analysis of variability, correlation and path coefficients in induced mutants of aromatic non-basmati rice. Tropical Agricultural Research. Extension. 113: 60-64
  56. Koleva, I.I., Vanbeek, V J., Linssen, P.H., Groot, A.D. and Evstatieva, L.N. (2002). Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochemical Analysis. 13: 8-17
  57. Krishnappa, M.R. (2003). Studies on variability, divergence and stability in selected medium duration rice of Hill zone of Karnataka. The Maysore J. Agri. Sci. 37(1): 95
  58. Kundagrami, S., De, B.K. and Mandal, A.K. (2008). Post-harvest seed invigoration treatments for improved storability and field performance of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Crop Research. 35: 317-322
  59. Kundu, C., Banerji, C., Banerji, B., Mandal, B.K. and Mallik, S. (1993). Amount of volatile aldehydes released by rice plants after submergence. Int. Rice. Res. Notes. 18: 2
  60. Kundu, D.K. and Ladha, J.K. (1999). Sustaining productivity of low land rice soils: issues and options related to N availability. Nutr.Cycl. Agroecosyst. 53: 19-33
  61. Li, Y.S., Li, S.Q. and Li, D.M. (2002). Comparative Study on Submergence Tolerance between Hybrid Rice and Conventional Rice Varieties. Chinese Journal of Rice Research. 16(1):45-51
  62. Luo, F.L., Nagel, K.A., Scharr, H., Zeng, B., Schurr, U. and Matsubara, S. (2011). Recovery dynamics of growth, photosynthesis and carbohydrate accumulation after de-submergence: a comparison between two wetland plants showing escape and quiescence strategies. Ann Bot. 107:49–63
  63. MacKill, D.J.. (1986). Progress in Rainfed Lowland Rice. Los Banos: International Rice Research Institute; Rainfed Lowland Rice Improvement in South and South East Asia; Results of a Survey. Pp. 115–144
  64. MacKill, J.D., Ismail, M.A., Pamplona, M.A., Sanchez, L.D., Carandang, J.J. and Septiningsih, M.E. (2010). Stress Tolerant Rice Varieties for Adaptation to a Changing Climate. International Rice Research Institute, Metro Manila, Philippines. Crop, Environment & Bioinformatics. 7 
  65. Malik, A.I., Colmer, T.D., Lambers, H. and Schortemeyer, L.M. (2003). Aerenchyma formation and radial O2loss along adventitious roots of wheat with only the apical root portion exposed to O2 deficiency. Plant, Cell and Environment. 26: 1713-1722
  66. Mallik, S., Kundu, C., Banerji, C., Nayak, D.K., Chatterji, S.D. and Nanda, P.K. (1995). Rice germplasm evaluation and improvement for stagnant flooding. In: Ingram KT, editor. Rainfed lowland rice: agricultural research for high risk environments. Manila: International Rice Research Institute. 97–109
  67. Mandal, A.B., Majumdar, N.D. and Bandopadhyay. (1993). Screening rice for tolerance for salt stress and submergence. Int. Rice Res. Notes.18: 34
  68. Mandal, A.K., De, B.K. and Basu, R.N. (1999). Dry-seed treatment for improved germinability and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 69: 627-630
  69. Mandal, A.K., Patra, S., Mallick, R.B., Mahato, A. and Biswas, J. (2011). Efficacy of seed treatment in rice (cv. Swarna masuri) for improved germinability and comparative study on field performance by conventional and system of rice intensification (SRI) technology. Crop Res. 41 (1, 2 & 3): 227-232 
  70. Mandamanchi, N.R. and Alscher, R.G. (1991). Metabolic bases for differences in sensitivity of two pea cultivars to sulfur dioxide. Plant Physiol. 97: 88-93
  71. Masamichi, O.H.E., Akira, T., Hironori, M. (1996). Jpn. J. Crop Sci. 65(2):238-244
  72. Matsukura, C., Kawai, M., Toyohuku, K., Barrero, R.A., Uchimiya, H. and Yamaguchi, J. (2000).Transverse vein differentiation associated with gas space formation—fate of the middle cell layer in leaf sheath development of rice. Annals of Botany.85: 19-27
  73. Maurya, D.M., Bottrall, A. and Farrington, J. (1988). Improved livelihoods, genetic diversity and farmer participation: a strategy for rice breeding in rainfed areas of India. Experimental Agriculture. 24: 311–320
  74. Mazaredo, A.M. and Vergara, B.S. (1982). Physiological differences in rice varieties tolerant and susceptible to complete submergence. In: Proceedings of the 1981 International Deepwater Rice Workshop. Manila: International Rice Research Institute, 327–341
  75. McKenzie, K.S., Johnson, C.W., Tseng, S.T., Oster, J.J., Brandon, D.M. (1994). Breeding improved rice cultivars for temperate regions a case study. Aust J Exp Agr.34:897–905
  76. McKenzie, K.S., Rutger, J.N. and Peterson, M.L. (1980). Relation of seedling vigor to semi dwarfism, early maturity and pubescence in closely related rice lines. Crop Sci. 20: 169–172
  77. McKersie, B.D. and Leshem, Y. (1994). Desiccation. In: McKersie BD, Leshem Y, editors. Stress and stress coping in cultivated plants. The Netherlands (Dordrecht): Kluwer Academic.132-147
  78. Minhas, D. and Grover, A. (1999). Toward developing transgenic rice plants tolerant to flooding stress. PINSA. B65: 33-50
  79. Mohanty, H. K., Mallik, S. and Grover, A. (2000). Prospects of improving flooding tolerance in lowland rice varieties by conventional breeding and genetic engineering. Curr. Sci. 78: 132–137
  80. Mohanty, H.K. and Chaudhury, R.C. (1986). Breeding for submergence tolerance in rice in India. In: Progress in rainfed lowland rice. Manila: International Rice Research Institute. 191-200.
  81. Mohanty, H.K., Ray, A.T., Das, S.R. and Bastia, S.D.N. (1994). Twelve new varieties raised for Orissa state, India. Int. Rice Res. Notes. 19: 16
  82. Mohanty, S.K., Singh, U., Balasubramanian, V. and Jha, K.P. (1999). Nitrogen deep-placement technologies for productivity, profitability, and environmental quality of rainfed lowland rice systems. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 53:43-57
  83. Mustafa, M.A. and Elsheikh, M.A.Y. (2007). Variability, correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and its components in rice. African. Crop Science. Journal. 15: 183-189
  84. Nagai, K., Hattori, Y. and Ashikari, M. (2010). Stunt or elongate? two opposite strategies by which rice adapts to floods. Journal of Plant Research.123: 303-309
  85. Nair, A. and Rosamma, C.A. (2007). Evaluation of rice genotypes for ratoon performance. Oryza. 44(1): 71-73
  86. Nakatani, N.(1997). Antioxidants from spices and herbs. Natural antioxidants: chemistry, health effects, and applications. AOCS Press Champaign. In F. Shahidi (ed.): 64-75
  87. Neeraja, C., Maghirang, R.R., Pamplona, A., Heuer, S., Collard, B. and Septiningsih, E. (2007). A marker-assisted backcross approach for developing submergence-tolerant rice cultivars. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 115: 767–776
  88. Noor, F., Ashraf, M. and Gafoor, A. (2003). Path analysis and relationship among quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Pak J.Biol.Sci. 6(6):551-555
  89. Oad, F.C., Samo, M.A, Hassan, Z.U, Cruz, P.S and Oad, N.L. (2002). Quantitative characters of rice ratoon cultivars and advance lines. Int. J. Agri. Biol. 4(2)
  90. Oliver, E. M., Hien, T.T.V., Shinya, Y., Naoki, M. and Chiharu, N. (2008). A simple, rapid and reliable bioassay for evaluating seedling vigor under submergence in indica and japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). Euphytica. 163: 267–274
  91. Pal, P. and Basu, R.N. (1993). Effect of powdered red chilli, turmeric and neem leaf on pre- and post-storage germinability of wheat seed. Indian Agriculturist. 37: 266-71
  92. Panda, D., Sharma, S.G. and Sarkar, R.K. (2008). Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, CO2 photosynthetic rate and regeneration capacity as a result of complete submergence and subsequent re-emergence in rice (Oryza sativa). Aqua Bot. 88: 127–3
  93. Patra, S., Guha, P., Biswas, P.S. and Mandal, A.K. (2012). Mid-storage seed invigoration treatments in rice (cv. Satabdi) for extended storability and comparative study on field performances by employing conventional and system of rice intensification method. Indian Biologist. 44 (2): 29-37
  94. Pereira-Netto, A.B. (2001). Effect of inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis and signal transduction pathway on the multiplication of in vitro-grown Hancornia speciosa. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 66: 1-7
  95. Pizzale, L., Bortolomeazzi, R., Vichi, S. and Conte, L.S. (2002). Antioxidant activity of sage and oregano extracts related to their phenolic compound content. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 82: 1645-1651
  96. Pradhan, B. and Kundagrami, S. (2015). Effects of anti Gibberellic and Ethylene Substances for Submergence Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Res. J. Agriculture and Forestry Sci. 3(4): 7-10
  97. Pradhan, B., Kundu, S. and Kundagrami, S. (2015). Role of Seed Treatment with Herbal Plant Products and Management Practices with Growth Nutrients by Decreasing Chlorophyll Reduction Rate for Overcoming Submergence Stress in Rice (Oryza Sativa L.). Int. Res. J. Biological Sci. 4(4): 1-5
  98. Pradhan, B., Sujauddin, M., Kundu S., Shit, S. and Kundagrami S. (2013). Laboratory screening for submergence tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian Biologist. 45(2):55-64
  99. Pullaiah, T. (2006). Encyclopaedia of World Medicinal Plants. Daya Books: 1
  100. Raha, S. (2009). Marker assisted introgression of sub1 locus in rice. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of M.Sc in Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University
  101. Rajhi, I., Yamauchi, T., Takahashi, H., Nishiuchi, S., Shiono, K., Watanabe, R., Mliki, A., Nagamura, Y., Tsutsumi, N., Nishizawa, N.K. and Nakazono, M. (2011). Identification of genes expressed in maize root cortical cells during lysigenous aerenchyma formation using laser micro dissection and microarray analyses. New Phytologist. 190: 351-368
  102. Ramakrishnayya, G., Setter, T. L., Sarkar. R. K., Krishnan, P. and Ravi, I. (1999). Influence of P application to floodwater on oxygen concentrations and survival of rice during complete submergence. Exp. Agric. 35: 167–180
  103. Ramkrishna, S.H., Anandkumar, C.R., Sarvanan, S. and Malini, N. (2006). Association analysis of some yield traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 2(7): 402-402 
  104. Rasheed, M.S., Sadaqat, H.A., and Babar, M., (2002). Correlation and path coefficient analysis for yield and its components in rice. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 1(3): 241-244
  105. Raskin, I. and Kende, H. (1984). Role of Gibberellin in the Growth Response of Submerged Deep Water Rice. Plant Physiol. 76: 947-950
  106. Reddy, M.D. and Ghosh, B.C. (1987).Comparative efficiency of different planting methods in intermediate deepwater (15–50 cm) rice. The Journal of Agricultural Science. 108 (3): 573-577
  107. Redona, E.D. and MacKill, D.J. (1996). Genetic variation for seedling vigor traits in rice. Crop Sci. 36: 285–290 
  108. Renukadevi, P. and Subbalakshmi, B. (2006). Correlations and path co efficient analysis in chickpea. Legume Res. 29: 201-204
  109. Roberts, A.W.C.J., Wemmer, D., Walbot, V. and Jardetzky, O. (1984). Mechanisms of cytoplasmic pH regulation in hypoxic maize root tips and its role in survival under hypoxia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. USA: 81: 3379–3383
  110. Roy Choudhury, D., Das, M. and Kundagrami, S. (2012). Screening for salinity tolerance and management for improved productivity in Chickpea and Lentil. Agrobios. 195-201
  111. Sadeghi, S.M. (2011). Heritability, phenotypic correlation and path coefficient studies for some agronomic characters in landrace rice varieties. World Applied Science Journal. 13: 1229-1233
  112. Saha Ray, P.K., Hille, R.L.D. and Tepora, N.M. (1993). Combination of stem elongation ability with submergence tolerance in rice. Euphytica. 68: 11-16
  113. Saleem, M.Y., Mukhtar, Z., Cheema, A.A., and Atta, B.M. (2005). Induced mutations and in-vitro techniques as a method to induce salt tolerance in Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L). International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 2(2): 141-145
  114. Sanoh – Arai, Y., Ida, M., Zhao, R., Yoshinaga, S., Takai, T., Ishimura, T., Maeda, H., Nishitani, K., Terashima, Y., Gau, M., Kato, N., Matsuoka, M. and Kondo, M. (2011). Genotypic Variations in Non-Structural Carbohydrate and Cell-Wall components of the stem in Rice, Sorghum, and Sugar vane. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 75(6): 1104-1112
  115. Sarkar, K.R and Bhattacharjee, B. (2011). Rice Genotypes with SUB1 QTL Differ in Submergence Tolerance, Elongation Ability during Submergence and Re-generation Growth at Re-emergence. Rice. 5: 7
  116. Sarkar, R. K and Das, S. (2003). Yield of rainfed lowland rice with medium water depth under direct seeding and transplanting. Tropical Science. 43: 192–208
  117. Sarkar, R. K. (1998). Saccharide content and growth parameters in relation with flooding tolerance in rice. Biol. Plant. (40): 597–603
  118. Sarkar, R. K., De, R. N., Reddy, J.N, and Ramakrishnayya, G. (1996). Studies on the submergence tolerance mechanism in relation to carbohydrate, chlorophyll and specific leaf weight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Plant Physiology. 149: 623–625 
  119. Sarkar, R.K., Reddy, J.N., Sharma, S.G., Ismail, A.M. (2006). Physiological basis of submergence tolerance in rice and implications for crop improvement. Curr Sci. 91: 899–6 
  120. Sauter, M. (2000). Rice in deep water. How to take heed against a sea of troubles. Naturwissenschaften. 87: 289–303
  121. Sengupta, A.K., De, B.K. and Mondal, A.K. (2005). Pre-storage seed invigoration treatments for the maintenance of vigour, viability and field performance of high-vigour onion seed (Allium cepa L.). Seed Sc. Technol. 33: 753-760
  122. Septiningsih, E.M., Pamplona, A.M., Sanchez, D.L., Neeraja, C.N., Vergara, G.V., Sigrid Heuer, S., Ismail, A.M. and Mackill, D.J. (2009). Development of submergence-tolerant rice cultivars: the Sub1 locus and beyond. Annals of Botany. 103: 151–160
  123. Setter, T. L and Laureles, E. V. (1996). The beneficial effect of reduced elongation growth on submergence tolerance of rice. J. Exp. Bot. 47: 1551–1559
  124. Setter, T., Ramakrishnayya, G., Ram, P.C. and Singh, B.B. (1995). Environmental characteristics of flood water in eastern India: relevance to flooding tolerance of rice. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 38: 34-40
  125. Setter, T.L., Ellis, M., Laureles, E.V., Ella, E.S., Senadhira, D., Mishra, S.B., Sarkarung, S. and Datta, S. (1997). Physiology and genetics of submergence tolerance in rice. Annals of Botany. 79: 67-77
  126. Setter, T.L., Waters, I., Wallace, I., Bhekasut, P. and Greenway, H. (1989). Submergence of rice. I. Growth and photosynthesis response to CO2 enrichment of flood water. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 16: 251-263
  127. Seyoum, M., Alamerew, S., and Bantte, K. (2012). Genetic variability, heritability, correlation coefficient and Path analysis for yield and yield related traits in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Plant Sciences. 7: 13-22
  128. Sharma, A.R. (1992). Effect of varying seed rates and transplanting clonal tillers on the performance of rice under intermediate deepwater conditions (0–80 cm). The Journal of Agricultural Science. 119: 171-177
  129. Sharma, L.K. and Saini, D.P. (2010).Variability and association studies for seed yield and yield components in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L). Res.J.Agril.Sci. 1:209-21
  130. Shiono, K., Takahashi, H., Colmer, T.D.and Nakazono, M. (2008). Role of ethylene in acclimations to promote oxygen transport in roots of plants in waterlogged soils. Plant Science. 175: 52-58
  131. Singh, S., MacKill, D.J. and Ismail, A.M. (2009). Responses of SUB1 rice introgression lines to submergence in the field: yield and grain quality. Field Crops Res. 113: 12–23
  132. Steffens, B., Geske, T. and Sauter, M. (2011). Aerenchyma formation in the rice stem and its promotion by H2O2. New Phytologist.190: 369-378
  133. Striker, G.G., Insausti, P., Grimoldi, A.A. and León, R.J.C. (2006). Root strength and trampling tolerance in the grass Paspalum dilatatum and the dicot Lotus glaber in flooded soil. Functional Ecology. 20: 4–10
  134. Surek, H. and Beser, N. (2003). Correlation and path coefficient analysis for some yield related traits in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under stress conditions. Turkey Journal of Agriculture. 27: 77-83
  135. Suthanthirarajan, N. (2002).Efficacy of herbal medicine in stress management. Proceedings of WHO Training-cum-Workshop on Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Drugs of Indian System of Medicine. 131-135
  136. Syahputra, B.S.A., Sinniah, U.R., Rastan, S.O.S. and Ismail, M.R. (2012). Changes in Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Content in Oryza sativa Due to Paclobutrazol Treatment. J.Food Pharm.Sci. 1: 14-17
  137. Tiwari, A.K., Srivastava, R.M., Kumar, V., Yadav, L.B., and Mishra, S.K. (2010). Senescence indicator’s of cymbidium flowers as affected by anti-ethylene pulsing. Prog. Agric. 10: 246-251
  138. Visser, E. J.W., Gemann, G. M. B., Steeg, H.M.V.D., Pierik, R. and Blom, C.W.P.M. (2000). Flooding tolerance of Carex species in relation to field distribution and aerenchyma formation. New Phytol. 148: 93-103
  139. Vriezen, W.H., Zhou, Z. and Straeten, D.V.D. (2003). Regulation of submergence induced enhanced shoot elongation in Oryza sativa L. Ann. Bot. 91: 263–270
  140. Wattenberg, L.W., Coccia, J.B. and Lam, L.K.T. (1980). Inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds on bezo (a) pyrene-induced neoplasia. Cancer Res. 40: 2820-2823
  141. Webb, J. and Jackson, M.B. (1986). A transmission and cryo-scanning electron microscopy study of the formation of aerenchyma (cortical gas filled space) in adventitious roots of rice. Journal of Experimental Botany. 37: 832–841
  142. Xu, K. and MacKill, D. J. (1996). A major locus for submergence tolerance mapped on rice chromosome 9. Mol. Breed. 2: 219–224
  143. Yamauchi, M. and Winn, T. (1996). Rice seed vigor and seedling establishment in anaerobic soil. Crop Sci. 36: 680–686
  144. Yasmeen, A. (2011). Exploring The Potential of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) Leaf Extract As Natural Plant Growth Enhancer. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy In Agronomy, Department Of Agronomy, University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  145. Zahid, M.A., Akhtar, M., Sabir, M., Manzoor, Z., and Awan, T. (2006). Correlation and path-analysis studies of yield and economic traits in Basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.). Asian Journal of Plant sciences. 5(4): 643-645
  146. Zeigler, R. S and Puckridge, D. W. (1995). Improving sustainable productivity in rice based rainfed lowland systems of south and Southeast Asia. GeoJournal. 35: 307–324
  147. Zhou, Z., Engler, J.A., Rouan, D., Michiels, F., Montagu, M.V. and Straeten, D.V.D. (2002).Tissue Localization of a Submergence-    Induced 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Synthase in Rice. Plant Physiology. 129: 72–84 

Global Footprints