Seasonal Variability and Propagation Environment to Graft Success and Growth of Sapling in Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Crops: A Review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-161    | Article Id: R-161 | Page : 58-65
Citation :- Seasonal Variability and Propagation Environment to Graft Success and Growth of Sapling in Tropical and Subtropical Fruit Crops: A Review.Agricultural Reviews.2021.(42):58-65
Nirajan Bhandari
Address : Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Gauradaha-57200, Jhapa, Nepal.
Submitted Date : 21-07-2020
Accepted Date : 5-11-2020


Grafting is a widely used propagation technique in fruit trees. Anatomical proximity between scion and rootstock is the prerequisite for the successful graft-take and survival of the grafted plants. The success of grafting, subsequent growth of scion shoot and development of the successful grafts depend upon several factors like climatic conditions, the growth stage of scion and rootstock, methods of grafting, etc. The grafting response of fruit crops differs due to seasonal variability and environmental condition where grafting is carried out. A controlled environment with the congenial conditions for faster healing and callus formation results in better graft success, survival and growth of grafted plants. 


Environmental condition Graft success Propagation Seasonal variability


  1. Adhikari, A. (2006). Effect of grafting season on success and growth of acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) in Rampur, Chitwan. Doctoral dissertation, M. Sc. Thesis. Tribhuvan University, IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal.
  2. Alka, G., Bharad, S.G., Mane, V.P. and Sarika, P. (2010). Seasonal variation in success of softwood grafting of jamun under Akola conditions. Asian Journal of Horticulture. 5(2): 266-268.
  3. Andrews, P.K. and Marquez, C.S. (1993). Graft incompatibility. Horticultural reviews. 15: 183-232.
  4. Angadi, S.G. and Karadi, R. (2012). Standardization of Softwood Grafting Technique in Jamun under poly mist house conditions. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 46(2): 429-432.
  5. Anushma, P.L., Swamy, G.S.K. and Gangadhara, K. (2014). Effect of colored shade nets on softwood grafting success in jamun (Syzigium cuminii skeels). Plant Archives. 14(1): 293-295.
  6. Arao, T., Takeda, H. and Nishihara, E. (2008). Reduction of cadmium translocation from roots to shoots in eggplant (Solanum melongena) by grafting onto Solanum torvum rootstock. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 54(4): 555-559.
  7. Baghel, B.S., Nair, H. and Nema, B.K. (2002). Response of mango (Mangifera indica L.) grafts to coloured polyhouse/light. South Indian Horticulture: 50(1/6): 1-6.
  8. Bhandari, N. (2018). Effect of Grafting Dates and Species on Success, Survivability and Growth of Citrus Sapling at Kavre, Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Tribhuvan University, Nepal.
  9. Chaitanya, H.S. (2000). Comparative evaluation of grafting methods in sapota (Manilkara achras (Mill) Foseberg) cv. Kallipatti. M.Sc. (Hort.) Thesis, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore.
  10. Chalise, B., Baral, D.R., Gautam, D.M. and Thapa, R.B. (2013a). Effect of grafting dates, methods on success and growth of mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) sapling. Nepal Journal of Science and Technology. 14(1): 23-30.
  11. Chandra, R., Jadhav, V.T., Sharma, J. and Marathe, R.A. (2011). Effect of grafting methods and time on scion sprouting, graft success and subsequent growth of grafted plants of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Bhagawa’. Acta horticulturae. 890: 83-86.
  12. Colla, G., Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Salerno, A. and Rea, E. (2010b). The effectiveness of grafting to improve alkalinity tolerance in watermelon. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 68(3): 283-291.
  13. Colla, G., Suarez, C. M. C., Cardarelli, M. and Rouphael, Y. (2010a). Improving nitrogen use efficiency in melon by grafting. Hort Science. 45(4): 559-565.
  14. Dong, H., Niu, Y., Li, W. and Zhang, D. (2008). Effects of cotton rootstock on endogenous cytokinins and abscisic acid in xylem sap and leaves in relation to leaf senescence. Journal of Experimental Botany. 59(6): 1295-1304.
  15. Edelstein, M., Ben-Hur, M., Cohen, R., Burger, Y. and Ravina, I. (2005). Boron and salinity effects on grafted and non-grafted melon plants. Plant and Soil. 269(1-2): 273-284.
  16. Gautam, I.P., Sah, D.N. and Khatri, B. (2001). Effect of time of grafting and budding on trifoliate rootstocks for appropriate mandarin orange saplings production. Lumle Working Paper (Nepal) No. 2001/20. Lumle Agricultural Research Station, Lumle, Kaski, Nepal. 
  17. Ghojage, A.H., Swamy, G.S.K., Kanamadi, V.C., Jagdeesh, R.C., Kumar, P., Patil, C.P. and Reddy, B.S. (2011). Effect of season on softwood grafting in jamun (Syzygium cumini Skeels.). Acta Horticulturae. 890: 123-127.
  18. Ghosh, S.N., Bera, B. and Banik, B.C. (2010). Effect of cultivars and season on grafting success in sapota under Paschim Midnapur conditions of West Bengal. Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 5(2): 138-139.
  19. Giri, B. and Lenka, P.C. (2008). Studies on vegetative propagation of wood apple. Orissa J. Hort. 36(1): 124-125.
  20. Gurjar, P.S. and Singh, R. (2012). Performance of wedge grafting in aonla at poly house and open field conditions. Environment and Ecology. 30(3): 531-536.
  21. Harshavardhan, A. (2011). Standardization of propagation methods in jackfruit. M.Sc. (Horti.) Thesis submitted to Dr.Y.S.R. University andhra Pradesh.
  22. Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E., Devise, F.T. and Geneve, R.L. (2002). Hartmann and Kester’s plant propagation: Principles and practices 7th ed Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River.
  23. Hasanein, N.M., Manal, M.H., El-Mola, G. and Mona, A.M. (2011). Studies on influence of different colors of shade on growth and yield of strawberries and different color of plastic mulch under low tunnels conditions. Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 7(6): 483-490.
  24. He, Y., Zhu, Z., Yang, J., Ni, X. and Zhu, B. (2009). Grafting increases the salt tolerance of tomato by improvement of photosynthesis and enhancement of antioxidant enzymes activity. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 66(2): 270-278.
  25. Hema Nair, B., Baghel, S., Tiwari, R. and Nema, B.K. (2002). Influence of coloured polyhouse/light and methods of epicotyl grafting on vigour of mango grafts. JNKVV Res. J. 36: 51-54.
  26. Hottes, A.C. (1925). Practical plant propagation: an exposition of the art and science of increasing plants as practiced by the nurseryman, florist and gardener. New York: A.T. De La Mare.
  27. Islam, M.M., Haque, M.A. and Hossain, M.M. (2003). Effect of age of rootstock and time of grafting on the success of epicotyl grafting in jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus L.). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 2: 1047-1051.
  28. Islam, M.N., Rahim, M.A. and Farooque, A.M. (2004). Standardization of time and grafting techniques in mango under Bangladesh condition. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences. 3 (3): 378-386.
  29. Islam, M.R. and Rahim, M.A. (2010). Performance of epicotyl grafting in different varieties of mango. J. Agrofor. Environ. 4(1): 45-50.
  30. Joshi, P.S., Bhalerao, P.S., Mahorkar, V.K. and Jadhav, B.J. (2000). Studies on vegetative propagation in custard apple (Annona squamosa L.). PKV Research Journal. 24(2): 103-105.
  31. Kalalbandi, B.M., Ziauddin, S. and Shinde, B.N. (2014). Effect of time of soft wood grafting on the success of sapota grafts in 50% shade net under Marathwada conditions. Agricultural Science Digest-A Research Journal. 34(2): 151-153.
  32. Khan, M.M., Shyamalamma, S. and Krishnamanohar, R. (1994). Relevance of greenhouse technology in India. Training manual on construction and management of low-cost poly/green houses. 1-8pp.
  33. Khan, M.R., Ghani, F., Bostan, N., Nabi, G., Muhammad, H., Ali, A., Amin, J. and Khalid, S. (2018). 39. The influence of timing and position of scion on graft take success of lemon. Pure and Applied Biology (PAB). 7(1): 330-337.
  34. Kudmulwar, R.R., Kulkarni, R.M., Bodamwad, S.G., Katkar, P.B. and Dugmod, S.B. (2008). Standardization of soft wood grafting season on success of custard apple (Annona squamosa L.). Asian Journal of Horticulture: 3(2): 281-282.
  35. Lingaiah, H.B., Vishnu, V., Raju, G.T.T., Janakiraman, N. and Lakshman, M. (2000). Influence of growing conditions on the production of root stocks and grafting success in cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.). Cashew. 14(3): 9-13.
  36. Mudge, K., Janick, J., Scofield, S. and Goldschmidt, E.E. (2009). A history of grafting. Horticultural reviews, Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 35: 437-493.
  37. Mulla, B.R., Angadi, S.G., Karadi, R., Patil, V.S., Mathad, J.C.and Mummigatti, U.V. (2011). Studies on softwood grafting in jamun (Syzygium cumini Skeels.). Acta horticulturae. 890: 117.
  38. Nahar, A., Choudhury, M.S.H. and Rahim, M.A. (2018). Effect of scion defoliation and stock leaf retention on growth of g    rafted lime (cv. Bau lime-1). Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 4(1): 44-48.
  39. Nayak, G. and Sen, S.K. (2000). Seasonal influence of veneer grafting of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Environment and Ecology. 18(1): 156-158.
  40. Otani, T. and Seike, N. (2006). Comparative effects of rootstock and scion on dieldrin and endrin uptake by grafted cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Journal of pesticide science. 31(3):    316-321.
  41. Otani, T. and Seike, N. (2007). Rootstock control of fruit dieldrin concentration in grafted cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Journal of pesticide science. 32: 235-242.
  42. Patel, R.K., Babu, K.D., Singh, A., Yadav, D.S. and De, L.C. (2010). Soft wood grafting in Mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco): A novel vegetative propagation technique. International Journal of Fruit Science. 10(1): 54-64.
  43. Patil, S.R., Suryawanshi, A.B. and Phad, G.N. (2010). Effect of season of grafting on percentage graft-take and growth of scion shoot of sapota on khirni rootstock. International Journal of Plant Sciences (Muzaffarnagar). 5(1): 6-9.
  44. Pawar, D.M., Ingle, V.G. and Panchabhai, D.M. (2003). Effect of age of rootstock and time of grafting on success of softwood grafts of custard apple under local conditions. Annals of Plant Physiology. 17(1): 53-55.
  45. Pina, A. and Errea, P. (2005). A review of new advances in mechanism of graft compatibility-incompatibility. Scientia Horticulturae. 106(1): 1-11.
  46. Poincelot, R. (1990). Horticulture: Principles and practical Application. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
  47. Poon, T.B. (1998, May). Effect of grafting methods and time on mandarin sapling production at Dailekh. In Proceedings of the 2nd National Horticultural Research Workshop, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (pp. 65-68).
  48. Prasanth, J.M., Reddy, P.N., Patil, S.R. and Pampanagouda, B. (2007). Effect of cultivars and time of softwood grafting on graft success and survival in mango. Agricultural Science Digest. 27(1): 18-21.
  49. Qi, H. Y., Li, T. L., Liu, Y. F. and Li, D. (2006). Effects of grafting on photosynthesis characteristics, yield and sugar content in melon. Journal-Shenyang Agricultural University. 37(2): 155.
  50. Ratna, S.S. (2012). Effect of time of grafting operation and varieties on the success and survivability of cleft grafting of sapota. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Horticulture, Bangladesh Agricultural University.
  51. Rivero, R.M., Ruiz, J.M., Sanchez, E. and Romero, L. (2003). Does grafting provide tomato plants an advantage against H2O2 production under conditions of thermal shock?. Physiologia Plantarum. 117(1): 44-50.
  52. Rouphael, Y. Cardarelli, M., Colla, G. and Rea, E. (2008a). Yield, mineral composition, water relations and water use efficiency of grafted mini-watermelon plants under deficit irrigation. Hort Science. 43(3): 730-736.
  53. Rouphael, Y., Cardarelli, M., Rea, E. and Colla, G. (2008b). Grafting of cucumber as a means to minimize copper toxicity.    Environmental and Experimental Botany. 63(1-3): 49-58.
  54. Sadhu, M.K. (1986). Vegetative Propagation Practices. In: Propagation of Tropical and Sub-tropical Horticultural crops (1st edn.). Bose T.K., S.K. Mitra and M.K. Sadhu. Nayaprokash, Calcutta. India. pp66.
  55. Sagvekar, V.V., Patil, B.P., Shingre, D.V., Gawankar, M.S. and Chavan, A.P. (2005). Success of cashew grafts cv. Vengurla-4 as influenced by polyshed environments. J. Agromet. 7(2): 262-267.
  56. Salik, M.R., Khan, M.N., Ahmad, S. and Azhar, M. (2015). Grafting Time Affects Scion Growth in Sweet Orange under Arid Environment. Pak. J. Life Soc. Sci. 13(1): 58 61
  57. Satoh, S. (1996). Inhibition of flowering of cucumber grafted on rooted squash stock. Physiologia Plantarum. 97(3): 440-444.
  58. Savvas, D., Papastavrou, D., Ntatsi, G., Ropokis, A., Olympios, C., Hartmann, H. and Schwarz, D. (2009). Interactive effects of grafting and manganese supply on growth, yield and nutrient uptake by tomato. HortScience. 44(7): 1978-1982.
  59. Selvi, R., Kumar, N., Selvarajan, M. and Anbu, S. (2008). Effect of environment on grafting success in jackfruit. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 65(3): 341-343.
  60. Shah, R.B. (1992). Trainer’s manual No. 16 Citrus fruit. Department of Agriculture, Central Agriculture Training Centre, Manpower Development Project, Kathmandu, Nepal. 523p.
  61. Shinde, S.B., Saiyad, M.Y., Jadav, R.D. and Chavda, J.C. (2010). Effect of structural conditions on softwood grafting success and survival of jamun grafts (Syzygium cumini Skeels). Asian J. Hort. 2(5): 391-392.
  62. Simkhada, E.P. (2007). Study on graft incompatibility in ‘Fuyu’ persimmon (Diospyros kaki) grafted onto different rootstocks in relation to physiological and morphological behaviors. Doctoral dissertation, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tsukuba. 81pp.
  63. Singh, N.P. and Srivastava, R.P. (1979). Studies on the different aspects involved in veneer grafting in mango. Progressive Horticulture. 11:67-74. 
  64. Singh, N.P. and Srivastava, R.P. (1982). Studies on various factors involved in soft wood grafting in mango. Progressive horticulture. 14(2-3): 117-120.
  65. Singh, R.R., Karuna, K., Ajit, K. and Abhay, M. (2012). Studies on the effect of time and methods of grafting on success and growth of mango graft. Progressive Horticulture: 44(1): 151-154.
  66. Singh, S. and Singh, A.K. (2006). Standardization of method and time of propagation in jamun (Syzygizun cuminii) under semi-arid environment of Western India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 76(4): 242-245.
  67. Sivudu, B.V., Reddy, M.L.N., Baburatan, P. and Dorajeerao, A.V. D. (2014a). Effect of structural conditions on veneer grafting success and survival of mango grafts (Mangifera indica cv. Banganpalli). Plant Archives. 14(1): 71-75.
  68. Sivudu, B.V., Reddy, M.L.N., Dorajeerao, A.V.D. and Hussain, S.F. (2014b). Seasonal variation in success of veneer grafting of mango under Andhra Pradesh (India) conditions. Plant Archives. 14(1): 133-37.
  69. Sundari, N.S.S. and Reddy, M.L.N. (2003). Influence of shade on success and growth of soft-wood grafts in cashew. Andhra Agricultural Journal (India). 50 (1and 2): 83-85. 
  70. Swamy, K.R.M., Rao, V.V.B., Nagaraju, B. and Nayak, M.G. (1993). Commercial propagation of cashew varieties. In: Proceedings of the Golden Jublee Symposium on Horticulture Research.
  71. Tewari, R.K., Bajpai, C.K. and Kumar, S. (2004). Standardization of bench grafting technique for aonla. Range Management and Agroforestry. 25(2): 120-123.
  72. Uchoi, J., Raju, B., Debnath, A. and Shira, V.D. (2012). Study on the performance of softwood grafting in jamun (Syzygium cumunii SKEEL). Asian Journal of Horticulture. 7(2): 340-342.
  73. Venema, J.H., Dijk, B.E., Bax, J.M., van Hasselt, P.R. and Elzenga, J.T.M. (2008). Grafting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) onto the rootstock of a high-altitude accession of Solanum habrochaites improves suboptimal-temperature tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 63(1-3): 359-367.
  74. Visen, A., Singh, J.N. and Singh, S.P. (2010). Standardization of wedge grafting in guava under North Indian plains. Indian Journal of Horticulture. 67(4): 111-114.
  75. Xu, C.Q., Li, T. L., Qi, H.Y. and Wang, H. (2005). Effects of grafting on growth and development, yield and quality of muskmelon. China Veg. 6: 12-14.
  76. Yetisir, H., Caliskan, M.E., Soylu, S. and Sakar, M. (2006). Some physiological and growth responses of watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. and Nakai] grafted onto Lagenaria siceraria to flooding. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 58(1-3): 1-8.
  77. Ziegler, L.W. and H.S. Wolfe. (1981). The Kinds of Citrus Fruits. In: Citrus Growing in Florida. 3rd ed. The Univ. Presses of Fla., Gainesville. p. 12-62.

Global Footprints