Agricultural Reviews

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Genome modifications in crops employing engineered nucleases

Harshvardhan N. Zala, Tejas C. Bosamia1, Yogesh M. Shukla2, Sushil Kumar, Kalyani S. Kulkarni*
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1<p>Department of Agricultural Biotechnology,&nbsp;Anand Agricultural University, Anand-388 110, India.</p>
Cite article:- Zala N. Harshvardhan, Bosamia1 C. Tejas, Shukla2 M. Yogesh, Kumar Sushil, Kulkarni* S. Kalyani (2016). Genome modifications in crops employing engineered nucleases . Agricultural Reviews. 37(2): 154-159. doi: 10.18805/ar.v0iof.9629.

Crop improvement aims at substantial enhancements in the quality, yield and stress resistance of crops to meet the increasing food demand of growing world population. Targeted genome modification of crop plants is one of the ways to achieve this. This technology supersedes conventional methods limited by the inefficiencies of random mutation, accuracy and stability. It employs site-directed nucleases to create breaks at specific points in the target genome for desired alteration with high-precision. There are four nucleases namely, LAGLIDADG homing endonucleases (LHEs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs),  transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) nucleases out of which three, ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR have been highly studied and evaluated in various crop systems for economic trait. Potency of engineered nucleases lies in their efficacy to bring desired modification in diploid as well as in polyploid plant genomes. Modifications using genome editing are similar to natural or conventional method like induced mutations and are foreseen to waive regulatory actions as applicable to genetically modified organisms. This review seeks to emphasize on the employment of engineered nucleases in various crops plants till date.

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