Incidence, bionomics and management of spotted pod borer [Maruca vitrata (Geyer)] in major pulse crops in India-A review

DOI: 10.18805/ar.v37i1.9260    | Article Id: R-1499 | Page : 19-26
Citation :- Incidence, bionomics and management of spotted pod borer [Maruca vitrata (Geyer)] in major pulse crops in India-A review .Agricultural Reviews.2016.(37):19-26

M.S. Mahalakshmi*, M. Sreekanth, M. Adinarayana, Y. Pushpa Reni, Y. Koteswara Rao, E. Narayana

msmlaxmi@gmail.com
Address :

Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam Farm, Guntur-522 034, Andhra Pradesh, India

Submitted Date : 13-01-2015
Accepted Date : 1-12-2015

Abstract

Spotted pod borer is one of the major biotic constraint for pulses production which can cause damage to the economic plant parts such as flower buds, flowers and pods. The larvae feeds on 39 host species of legume crops. The seasonal incidence of spotted pod borer differed from crop to crop and season to season. However, the peak incidence of larvae was observed at flowering and pod development stage in different pulse crops. Female moths lays flat scaly eggs on floral buds, flowers, leaves, leaf axils, terminal shoots and tender pods. Larvae are translucent with dark brown spots on each segment and larval period lasted from 11 to 21 days and the duration of total life cycle varied from 27 to 36 days on different hosts. The efficacy of chemical insecticides belonging to different groups against spotted pod borer was well established on different pulse crops. Neem products such as neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) or neem oil and biocides like Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) showed different levels of efficacy on different crops.

Keywords

Pulses Spotted pod borer.

References

  1. Akhauri, R. K. and Yadav. R. P. (2002). Population dynamics, damage pattern and management of spotted pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer.) in early pigeonpea under North Bihar conditions. J. Entomological Res. 26: 179-182. 
  2. Akhauri, R.K., Sinha, M. M. and Yadav, R.P. (1994). Population buildup and relative abundance of pod borer complex in early pigeonpea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. J. Ent.Res., 18: 121-126.
  3. Akhilesh, K. and Paras. N. (2005). Study of the effect of meteorological factors on the population of insect pests infesting UPAS 120 cultivar of pigeonpea. J. Maharashtra Agril. Univ. 30: 190-192.
  4. Arulmozhi, K. (1990). Bio-ecology of Maruca testulalis Geyer. and its management. M.Sc.(Ag.) Thesis. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.117p.
  5. Ashok Kumar, C.T. and Shivaraju, C. (2009). Evaluation of newer insecticide molecules against pod borers of Blackgram. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22: 521-523.
  6. Atachi, P. and Djihou, Z.C. (1994). Record of host plants of Maruca testulalis (Geyer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Republic of Benin. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 30: 169-174 .
  7. Bajpai, G. G., Singh, I. S., Gupta, A. K. and Singh, A. K. (1995). Incidence and assessment of Maruca testulalis damaging pigeonpea at Pantnagar. Indian J. Pulses Res., 8: 199-200.
  8. Bhalani, P.A. and Parsana, G. J. (1987). Relative toxicity of certain newer insecticides to Maruca testulalis. (Geyer) attacking pigeonpea. Pesticides, 21: 23-25.
  9. Bhat, N. S., Raju, G. T., Manjunatha, M., Nagabhushana, G. G. and Deshpande, V. P. (1988), Chemical control of cowpea pod borer. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16 : 197-200.
  10. Bindra, O. S. (1968). A note on the study of varietal resistance in pulses to different insect pests. In “Second Annual Workshop on Pulse Crops”. April 1–3, IARI, New Delhi. pp. 25-31.
  11. Chandrayudu, E., Srinivasan, S. and Rao, V. N. (2006). Comparative biology of spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in major grain legumes. Journal of Applied Zoological Research 16: 147-149.
  12. Chandrayudu, E., Srinivasan, S. and Rao, V. N. (2008). Evaluation of certain newer insecticides against spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) on cowpea (Vigna ungiculata (L) Walp). Current Biotica 2: 240-243.
  13. Chandrayudu, E. Srinivasan, S. and Rao, N. V. (2006). Evaluation of certain new insecticides against spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata, in cowpea. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 34: 1, 118-119. 
  14. Chittibabu, G., Madhumathi, T., Arjuna Rao, P. and Srinivasa Rao, V. (2009). Seasonal Incidence of Spotted Pod Borer [Maruca Vitrata (Geyer); Pyralidae; Lepidoptera] on Blackgram. The Andhra Agricultural Journal, 56: 31-33.
  15. Dietz, P.A. (1914). Het Katjand VI indertje (het verrmeende Toa-Toh-Motje). Meded. Deli-Proefstu Medan., 8: 273- 278
  16. Durairaj, C. (1999). Integrated management for pigeonpea pod borer complex, a review. Pestology. Special Issue February, 100-115.
  17. Ganapathy, N. and Durairaj, C. (1994). Chemical control schedule for redgram pod borers and pod fly. Madras Agric. J., 81: 698-699.
  18. Ganapathy, N. (1996). Bioecology and management of spotted pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer. (Pyralidae :Lepidoptera) in pigeonpea. Ph.D. Thesis.Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India.171p.
  19. Giraddi, R. S., Amaranath, K., Chandra Shekar, Kedanuri, R. and Patil, R. S. (2000). Bioefficacy of new molecules of insecticides against gram pod borer (Helicovera armigera) in pigeonpea (Cujanus cajan). Insect Environment 6 : 1 - 24.
  20. Gopali, J. B., Raju, T. D., Mannur, M. and Yelshetty, S. (2010). Web forming lepidopteran, Maruca vitrata (Geyer): an emerging and destructive pest in pigeonpea. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 23: 35-38.
  21. Goud, K.B. and Vastrad, A.S. (1992). Record of Maruca testulalis Gey. infesting stem of blackgram, Vigna mungo (L.) in Dharwad, Karnataka. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 5: 270-271.
  22. Gupta, M. P. and Pathak, R. K. (2009). Bioefficacy of neem products and insecticides against the incidence of whitefly, YMV and pod borers in blackgram. Natural Product Radiance 8: 133-136.
  23. Hampson, G.F. (1976). The Fauna of British India. Vol. IV. (Ed.) Junk, W. B.V. Publishers, The Hague. 393-395.
  24. Jackai, L.E.N. (1981). Relationship between cowpea crop phenology and field infestation by legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis. Ann. Ent. Soc. Am., 74: 402-408.
  25. Jackai, L.E.N. (1982). A field screening technique for resistance of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) to pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer). Bull. Ent. Res., 72: 145-
  26. Jackai, L.E.N. and Singh, S.R. (1983). Suitability of selected leguminous plants for development of Maruca testulalis larvae. Ent. Exp. Appl., 34: 174-178.
  27. Karel, A. K. (1985). Yield losses from and control of bean pod borers, Maruca testulalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Heliothis armigera (Lcpidoptera: Noctuidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 78:1323-1326.
  28. Kataria, V.P., Thukral,V., Saxena, D.R., Saxena, M., Trivedi, K.K. and Das, S.B. (1994). Pulses Research at Khargone. In: 25 years of Research on Pulses in India. Int. Nat. Sym. Pulses Res., April 2-6, 1994. New Delhi. Pp. 119-120.
  29. Krishnamurthy, B. (1936). The Avare pod borers. (A new method of control). Mysore Agric. Cal. Yb 25: 29-30.
  30. Lakshmi, P. S. P., Rajasekhar, P. and Rao, S. R. V. (2002). Bioefficacy of certain insecticides against spotted pod borer on urdbean. Indian Journal of Pulses Research 15: 201-202.
  31. Lal, S.S. and Yadava, C.P. (1988). Efficacy of certain insecticides against pod borers infesting pigeonpea. Pesticides, 22: 30-35.
  32. Lalasangi, M.S. (1988). Bionomics, loss estimation and control of pod borer, Maruca testulalis Gey. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on cowpea. Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 22: 187-188.
  33. MahaLakshmi. M.S., Rama Rao, C.V. and Koteswara Rao, Y. (2012). Efficacy of certain newer insecticides against legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata in urdbean. Indian Journal of Plant Protection. 40:115-117.
  34. Mahalakshmi, M.S., Rama Rao, C.V., Adinarayana, M., Sateeshbabu, J. and Koteswara Rao, Y. (2013). Evaluation of Coragen (DPX-E2Y45) against legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on blackgram. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences. 3:51-54.
  35. Malathi, S. (2007). Evaluation of different spray schedules against Maruca vitrata in pigeonpea. Journal of Food Legumes. 20: 124-125.
  36. Mallikarjuna, J. Kumar, C. T. A. and Rashmi, M. A. (2009). Field evaluation of indigenous materials and newer insecticide    molecules against pod borers of dolichos bean. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 22: 617.
  37. Manjula, K and Padmavathamma, K. (1996). Effect of microbial insecticides on the control of Marucu testulalis and on the predators of redgram pest complex. Entomon 2 1: 269-271.
  38. Mohapatra, D. S. and Srivastava, C. P. (2002). Bioefficacy of chemical and biorational insecticides against incidence of legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in short duration pigeonpea. Indian Journal of Plant Protection 30 : 22-25.
  39. Mohapatra, S. D. and Srivastava, C. P. (2008). Toxicity of bio-rational insecticides against spotted pod borer Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in short duration pigeonpea. Indian Journal of Entomology 70: 61-63.
  40. Naveen, V., Naik. M. I., Manjunatha, M., Pradeep, S., Shivanna, B. K. and Sridhar, S. (2009). Biology of legume pod borer, Maruca testulalis Geyer on cowpea. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 22 (3-Spl. Issue ) : 668-669.
  41. Ogunwolu, E. O. (1990). Damage to cowpea by the legume pod borer, Muruca testulalis Geyer, as influenced by infestation density in Nigeria. Trop. Pest Manage. 36: 138-140
  42. Patel, R. K. and Singh, D. (1977). Serious incidence of pod-borer, Muruca testulalis Gey. on red gram at Varanasi. Sci. Cult. 43: 319.
  43. Patel, R. K. and Singh, D. (1976). Serious incidence of pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Geyer. on redgram at Varanasi. Sci. Cult., 43: 319- 321.
  44. Patil, S. K. and Jamadagni, B. M. (2006). Field efficacy of Novaluron 10 EC (Rimon 10 EC) against pod borers in blackgram, Pestology, 30: 22-23.
  45. Patnaik, H. B. and Mishra, T. K. (1994). Pulses Research at Berhampur. Pp. 145-147. In: 25 years of research on pulses in India. Int. Nat. Sym. Pulses Res. April. 2-6, 1994. New Delhi.
  46. Prajapati, B. G., Dodia, D. A. and Tikka, S. B. S. (2003). Studies on the bioefficacy of synthetic and botanical insecticides against major pests of cowpea. In (Henry, A.; Kumar, D. and Singh, N. B. (eds.). Advances in arid legumes research. Proceedings of the National Symposium on Arid Legumes, for Food Nutrition Security and Promotion of Trade, 15-16 May 2002. Hisar, India. pp. 462-466.
  47. Prasad, D., Premchand and Haque, M. F. (1989a). Incidence of pod boring insects in different cultivars of pigeonpea. J. Res, Birsa. Agric. Uni. 1: 79-80
  48. Prasad, D., Premchand and Haque, M. F. (1989b). Relative susceptibility of different cultivars of redgram. J. Res., Birsa. Agric. Uni. 1: 179-181
  49. Rahman, M. M. (1991). Control measures for important insect pests of major pulses. In Advances in Pulses Research in Bangludesh: Proceedings of the Second National Workshop on Pulses, 6-8 Jun 1989, Joydebpur, Bangladesh. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, pp. 139-146
  50. Rahman, M.M. and Rahman, M. S. (1988). Timing and frequency of insecticide application against Maruca testulalis (Geyer) infesting short-duration pigeonpea in Bangladesh. Legume Res., 11: 173-179.
  51. Ramadas, R, N. (1983). Biology, some aspects of morphology and chemical control of cowpea pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). M. Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, Univ. Agric. Sci., Bangalore (India).
  52. Ramasubramanian, G. V. and Babu, P. C. S. (1991). Field evaluation of insecticides and botanicals against the spotted pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) on lablab. Madras Agril. J. 78: 17-19.
  53. Ramasubramanian, G.V. and Sundarababu, P.C. (1988). Effect of host plants on some biological aspects of spotted pod-    borer, Maruca testulalis (Gey.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Indian J. Agric. Sci., 58: 618-620.
  54. Ramasubramanian, G.V. and Sundarababu, P. C. (1989). Comparative biology of spotted pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Gey.) on three host plants. Legume Res.,12: 177-178.
  55. Rao, G. V. R., Kumari, P. R. A., Rao, V. R., Reddy, Y. V. R. (2007 Evaluation of Spinosad and Indoxacarb for the management of legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in Pigeonpea. Journal of Food Legumes, 20: 126-127.
  56. Rao, K. T., Rao, N. V. and Reddy, A. S. (1986). Control of pod borers of Arhar. Indian Farm 36: 29-35
  57. Reddy, C.N., Yeshbir, S. Singh, V. S. and Singh, Y. (2001). Influence of abiotic factors on the major insect pests of pigeon pea. Indian J. Entomol. 63: 211-214.
  58. Rekha, S. and Mallapur, C. P. (2007). Studies on insect pests of Dolichos bean in Northern Karnataka. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 20: 407-409. 
  59. Sahoo, B. K. and. Behera, U. K. (2001). Influence of abiotic factors on the incidence of pigeonpea pod borers in coastal belt of Orissa. Environment and Ecology 19: 882-884.
  60. Samolo, A. P. and Patnaik, H.P. (1986). Efficacy of different insecticides and their frequency of application on the pod borers infesting pigeonpea. Madras Agric.J., 73: 352-354.
  61. Sandhya Rani, C. and Eswari, K.B. (2008). Evaluation of some newer insecticides against maruca on greegram. Asian Journal of Bio Science 3 : 346-347.
  62. Saxena, H. P. (1978). Pests of grain legumes and their control inIndia. In Pests of Grain Legumes: Ecology and Control, ed. Singh, S.R., van Emden, H. F. and Taylor. J. A. Academic Press, London,pp. 15-24.
  63. Saxena, K. B., Chandrasena, G. D. S. N., Hettiarachchi, K., Iqbal, Y. B. Foneska, H. H. D. and Jayasekhara, S. J. B. A (2002). Evaluation of Pigeonpea accessions and selected lines for reaction to Maruca. Crop Science, 42:615-618.
  64. Shambulingappa, K.G. (1994). Pulses research at Bangalore. In: 25 Years of research on pulses in India. Int. Nat. Symp. on Pluses Res., New Delhi, India. April 2-6, 1994. pp.123-125.
  65. Sharma, H.C., (1998). Bionomics, host plant resistance and management of legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata- a review. Crop Prot., 17: 373-386.
  66. Shivaraju, C., Ashok Kumar, C.T., Sudhir Kumar, S. and Thimmiah, M. (2008). Seasonal incidence of pod borer complex on Blackgram, [Vigna mungo (L.)] Journal of Entomological Research. 35: 39-42.
  67. Singh, K., Sharma, U.S., Swaminathan, R. and Dashora, P. K. (2009). management of insect pests of vigna radiata (l.) Wilczek. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 7: 99-109.
  68. Singh, M.M. and Srivastava, S. N. (1989). Spray schedule for pod borers of pigeonpea. Legume Res.,12: 101-102.
  69. Singh, N. K. Anuradha Thakur and Srivastava, O. P. (2008). Evaluation of certain newer insecticides against insect pest complex on pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Millsp.). Journal of Applied Zoological Researches. 19: 46-49. 
  70. Singh, R. P., Singh, Y.S., Singh, P. and Singh, Y. (1985). Field evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) seed kernel extracts against the pod borers of pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Indian J. Entomol. 47: 111 - 112.
  71. Singh, S. R. and Jackai, L. E. N. (1988). The legume pod-borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer): past, present and future research. Insect Sci. Applic. 9: l-5.
  72. Singh, S. R. and Taylor, T. A. (1978). Pests of grain legumes and their control in Nigeria. pp.99-111. In: Pests of Grain Legumes : Ecology and control (Eds.) Singh, S.R., van Emden, H.F. and Taylor, T.A. Academic Press, London, UK.
  73. Sontakke, B. K. and Mishra, P. R. (1991). Comparative efficacy and economics of synthetic pyrethroids in the management of pod borer complex in pigeonpea. Indian J. Plant. Prot., 19: 167-170.
  74. Sonune, V. R., Bharodia, R. K., Jethva, D. M. and Dabhade, P. L. (2010). Seasonal incidence of spotted pod borer, Maruca testulalis (Geyer) on blackgram. Legume Res., 33: 61 – 63.
  75. Sreekanth, M. and MahaLakshmi, M. S. (2012). Studies on relative toxicity of biopesticides to Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and Maruca vitrata (Geyer) on pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) . Journal of Biopesticides. 5: 191-195.
  76. Srinivasan, G. and Sridhar, R. P. (2008). Field efficacy of plant products against spotted pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) in Pigeonpea. Legume Res., 31: 48 – 50.
  77. Srivastava, C. P., Pimbert, M. P. and Jadhav, D. R. (1992). Monitoring of adult population of Muruca testulalis (Geyer) with light traps at Patancheru and Hisar in India. Pigeonpea Newslett. 15: 27-28
  78. Sundara Babu, P. C. and Rajasekaran, B. (1984). Studies on the control of pod borers and pod fly on redgram (Cajanus cajan L.). Pesticides 18: 24-26.
  79. Sunitha, V., Vijayalakshmi, K. and Rao, G. V. R. (2008). Laboratory evaluation of certain insecticides against pigeonpea pod borer Maruca vitrata (Geyer). Journal of Food Legumes 21: 137-139.
  80. Thejaswi, L., Mohan, I., Naik, Y. and Manjunatha, M. (2008). Studies on population dynamics of pest complex of field bean (Lablab purpureus L.) and natural enemies of pod borers Karnataka J. Agric. Sci., 21: 399-340.
  81. Taylor, T.A. (1963). The field pest problems on cowpea in southern Nigeria. Proc.1st Nigerian Grain Legume Conf. pp. 1-    80. Inst. Agric. Res., Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria.
  82. Taylor, T.A. (1967). The bionomics of Maruca testulalis Gey., a major pest of cowpea in Nigeria. J.West. Afr. Sci.Assoc., 12: 111-129.
  83. Umbarkar, P.S., Parsana, G.J. and Jethva, D.M. (2010). Seasonal incidence of spotted pod borer, Maruca testulalis (geyer) on greengram Agric. Sci. Digest., 30 : 150- 151.
  84. Venkaria, M. V. and Vyas, H. N. (1985). Chemical control of pod borer complex in greengram, Vigna radiata L. Wilczek with certain insecticides alone and in combination with Miraculan - a plant growth stimulant. Leg. Res. 8: 111-113
  85. Vishakantaiah, M. and Jagadeesh Babu, C.S. (1980). Bionomics of tur webworm, Maruca testulalis (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae). Mysore J. Agric. Sci., 14: 529-532.
  86. Wanjari, K.B. (1994). Pulses research at Akola. In: 25 years of Research on Pulses in India. Int. Nat .Symp. Pulses Res., April 2-6, 1994. New Delhi, India. Pp. 103-104.
  87. Zahid, M. A., Islam, M. M. and Begum, M. R. (2008). Determination of Economic Injury Levels of Maruca vitrata in Mungbean. J Agric Rural Dev 6: 91-97.
     

Global Footprints