Adaptation and mitigation strategies for dairy cattle: Myths and realities in Indian condition - A review

DOI: 10.18805/ag.v36i4.6665    | Article Id: R-1483 | Page : 287-295
Citation :- Adaptation and mitigation strategies for dairy cattle: Myths and realities in Indian condition - A review .Agricultural Reviews.2015.(36):287-295

Sumit Mahajan*, Janailin S. Papang, Shivraj Singh and K.K. Datta

sumitzone2009@gmail.com
Address :

National Dairy Research Institute(N.D.R.I.), Karnal-132 001, Haryana, India.

Submitted Date : 7-11-2014
Accepted Date : 6-12-2014

Abstract

The anticipated climate change will adversely affect the productivity of livestock directly due to increased heat stress, indirectly it will affect the livestock by causing feed and fodder shortages, reducing biodiversity, water availability and increasing the incidences of vector-borne livestock diseases. On the other hand, the livestock keeping farm households mainly small farm households will be affected directly as they rear livestock for their livelihood. Interestingly, over the years, the livestock keeping households have increased at a tremendous rate for the small and marginal, medium and semi-medium farm household categories as they reduce the risk arising from extreme climate conditions. So, it becomes imperative to adopt adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce the impact of climate change on livestock given their importance in smallholder farmers’ livelihood in India. Some of researchers in past have recommended certain adaptation and mitigation strategies for reducing the climate change impact on livestock. But, are these adaptation and mitigation strategies applicable or viable in the context of smallholder farmers in India? This remains an unsolved puzzle. This paper tries to demystify certain myths associated with these strategies as well as explore the ground realities. The present policy of indiscriminate crossbreeding of local cattle with exotic cattle should be reviewed and reoriented for smallholder dairy farmer especially, in dry and rainfed regions where there is scarcity of fodder and water which are required heavily by crossbred cattle. The study clearly reflects that the adaptation research should be country specific as the strategies suitable for one country may not be viable for the others as there is considerable difference in local conditions of different countries. 

Keywords

Adaptation Climate change Dairy cattle Mitigation Smallholder farmers.

References

  1. Amarasinghe, U. A.; Shah, T.; Turral, H. and Anand, B. K. (2007). India’s water future to 2025-2050: Business-as-usual scenario and deviations, International Water Management Institute (IWMI) Research Report 123, Colombo, Sri Lanka, pp.47.
  2. Bibbiani, C. and Consorti, S.B. (2005). Shadow Tracking Procedure Applied to Feedlot Shade Structures.
  3. (http://www.biblio.vet.unipi.it/annali2005/133.pdf )
  4. Bray, D. R. (2000). Cooling ponds for dairy cattle, Fact sheet DS-96, Anim. Sci., Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, University of Florida.
  5. (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/DS/DS17200.pdf )
  6. Brown, C. and Hansen, J.W. (2008). Agricultural Water Management and Climate Risk, Report to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. IRI Tech. Rep. No. 08-01. International Research Institute for Climate and Society, Palisades, New York, USA. pp.19 
  7. Bouman, B., Barker R., Humphreys E. and Tuong T.P. (2007), Rice: feeding the billions. In: 
  8. Bucklin, R. A.; Bray, D. R.; Beede, D. K. and Hemken, R.W. (1991). Methods to Relieve Heat stress for Dairy Cows in Hot, Humid Climates”, Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 7: 241-247.
  9. Bucklin, R. A.; Bray, D. R. and Beede, D. K. (1988). Methods to Relieve Heat Stress for Florida Dairies. Florida Cooperative Extension Service Circular 782.
  10. Collier, R.J.; Collier, J.L.; Rhoads, R.P. and Baumgard, L.H. (2008). Genes involved in the bovine heat stress response. Journal of Dairy Science. 91: 445-454.
  11. Collier, R. J.; Dahl, G. E. and VanBaale, M. J. (2006). Major Advances Associated with Environmental Effects on Dairy Cattle. Journal of Dairy Science. 89: 1244–1253.
  12. Davison, T.; McGowan, M.; Mayer, D.; Young B.; Jonsson, N.; Hall, A.; Matschoss, A.; Goodwin, P.; Goughan, J. and Lake, M. (1996). Managing hot cows in Australia. Queensland Department of Primary Industry, 58.
  13. Debaeke, P. (2002). Crop management adaptation to water-limited environments, ESA-ASA-CSSA-SSSA Symposium on water-limited agriculture, VII Congress of the European Society for Agronomy, Cordoba, Spain, 15-18 July, pp. 33-44.
  14. FAO. (2007). The State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, edited by B. Rischkowsky & D. Pilling. Rome.
  15. GOI (Government of India). (2002). Agricultural Census, 2001, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi.
  16. GOI (Government of India). (2011). Agricultural Statistics at a Glance, 2010, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi. 
  17. GOI (Government of India). (2002). Draft report of the working group on animal husbandry and dairying for five-year plan (2002-2007), working group Sr. No. 42/2001, Government of India, Planning Commission, 214.
  18. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2007). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Summary for policy makers. 
  19. (http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/spm.html.)
  20. Linn, J.G. (1997). Nutritional management of lactating dairy cows during periods of heat stress, University of Minnesota.
  21. Mathew, S. (2008). While Thinking About Milk Crisis in Kerala. 
  22. (http://www.jivaonline.net/articles.html)
  23. Minson D. J. (1990). Forage in Ruminant Nutrition. Academic Press, San Diego, 403-461.
  24. Misra, A.K. and Mandal, D.K. (2010). Role and Scope of Crossbred Cattle for Improvement in Milk Production under Climate Change Scenario in India, National Symposium on Climate Change & Livestock Productivity in India, 26-37.
  25. NRC. (1981). Effect of Environment on Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. Subcommittee on Environmental Stress, National Research Council, National Academy Press, Washington DC.
  26. NSSO. (1992). Livestock & Agricultural Implements in Household operational holdings, 1991-92, National Sample Survey 48th Round, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India. 
  27. NSSO. (2003). Livestock ownership across operational land holding classes in India, 2002-03. National Sample Survey 59th Round, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Govt. of India. 
  28. Pennington, J.A and Van Devender, K. (2004). Heat stress in dairy cattle, UACES Publications.
  29. Ravagnolo, O. and Misztal, I. 2002. Effect of Heat Stress on Nonreturn Rate in Holstein Cows: Genetic Analyses. Journal of Dairy Science. 85: 3092–3100
  30. Sainath, P. (2011). Cowed down by the Prime Minister. The Hindu, 13 May. 
  31. Sharma, M.C. and Tiwari, R. (2011). Contribution of livestock in rural economy, 5th National Seminar on Multi Sectoral Innovations for Rural Prosperity, NDRI, Karnal.
  32. Shearer, J.K.; Bray, D.R. and Bucklin, R.A. (1999). The management of heat stress in dairy cattle: What we have learned in Florida, 60-71 in Proc. Feed and Nutritional Management Cow College, Virginia Tech.
  33. ‘    (http://www2.dasc.vt.edu/extension/nutritioncc/shear99b.pdf)
  34. Singh, O. P.; Sharma, A; Singh, R. and Shah, T. (2004). Virtual Water Trade in Dairy Economy: Irrigation Water Productivity in Gujarat. Economic and Political Weekly, July: 3492-3497
  35. Thornton, P. K. (2010). Livestock Production: Recent Trends, Future Prospects.
  36. (http://dels.nas.edu/resources/staticassets/banr/AnimalProductionMaterials/ThorntonLivestockProductionTrends.pdf)
  37. Thornton P. and Herrero, M. (2008). Climate Change, Vulnerability, and Livestock Keepers: Challenges for Poverty Alleviation, Livestock and Global Climate Change conference proceeding, 17-20 May, Tunisia, 21-24.
  38. Thornton, P.K.; Herrero, M.; Freeman, A.; Okeyo Mwai; Ed Rege; Jones, P. and McDermott, J. (2007). Vulnerability, Climate change and Livestock – Research Opportunities and Challenges for Poverty Alleviation.
  39. (http://www.icrisat.org/journal/SpecialProject/sp7.pdf.)
  40. Tychon, B.; Balaghi, R. and Jlibene, M. (2003). Risk Management in Agriculture Water Use in Unlocking the water potential of agriculture, FAO, Rome.
  41. (http://www.fao.org/landandwater/aglw/wsfs/docs/theme3.pdf)
  42. Upadhyay, R.C.; Singh, S.V. and Ashutosh. (2008). Impact of Climate Change on Livestock. Indian Dairyman. 60: 98 102.
  43. Verma, D.N. and Hussain, K.G. (1988). Effect of Shower on Physiological Parameters, Nutrient Utilization and Milk Production in Buffaloes, Proceedings of II World Buffalo Congress, India.
  44. West, J.W. (1995). Managing and feeding lactating dairy cows in hot weather. Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia, College Agric. Environ. Sci., Athens, 1–13. 

Global Footprints