Agricultural Reviews

  • Chief EditorPradeep K. Sharma

  • Print ISSN 0253-1496

  • Online ISSN 0976-0741

  • NAAS Rating 4.84

Frequency :
Quarterly (March, June, September & December)
Indexing Services :
AGRICOLA, Google Scholar, CrossRef, CAB Abstracting Journals, Chemical Abstracts, Indian Science Abstracts, EBSCO Indexing Services, Index Copernicus
Agricultural Reviews, volume 36 issue 2 (june 2015) : 81-99

Carbon sequestration in soils-A Review

Reena Nair*, C. R. Mehta, Shefali Sharma
1AICRP-AZF, J.N. KrishiVishwaVidyalaya, Adhartal, Jabalpur-482 004, India.
Cite article:- Nair* Reena, Mehta R. C., Sharma Shefali (2024). Carbon sequestration in soils-A Review. Agricultural Reviews. 36(2): 81-99. doi: 10.5958/0976-0741.2015.00011.2.
Agricultural soils can be a source or sink for atmospheric CO2depending upon the management practices and land use patterns. Progressive increase in the concentration of GHGs since industrial era has created worldwide interest in identifying strategies to reduce concentration of these gases in the atmosphere. Carbon sequestration is an important technology for the maintenance of optimum CO2 level in the atmosphere, which in-turn results in reducing the recent increase in atmosphericcarbon dioxide, contributing to global warming.Carbon stored in soilsis 2-4 times more as compared to that stored in the atmosphere and around 4 times that C stored in vegetation. The potential carbon sequestration in world soil is 0.4-1.2 Gt C/year.Therefore, it is understandable that the soil C sink has significant impact on sequestering CO2. The objective of the paperis to review the potential of soils in sequesteringcarbon and mitigating the acceleratedgreenhouse effects by changing agricultural management practices viz.conservation agriculture, organic agriculture, grasses/forages, proper grazing management, biochar and land use management.Significant amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) could be sequestered by changing conventional tillage to conservation tillage, its effect is noticeable only in long term rather than short term tillage practice. Legume-based crop rotation is more efficient in converting biomass C into soil organic C than the grass based. Rotational grazing improves grass quality and reduces the total amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere. Another approach in sequestrating atmospheric carbon is biochar production and mixing it into soil.
  1. Abdurahman M D, Seeling B, Rego T J and Reddy B B. (1998). Organic matter inputs by selected cropping systems on a Vertisol in the semi-arid tropics of India. Ann. Arid Zone 37: 363–371.
  2. Anonymuos. (2007). India: Green House Gas Emission 2007. Indian Network for Climate Change (INCC). Ministry of Environment and Forest, Government of India: 31.
  3. Anonymuos. (2012). India Second National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India:65
  4. Baker C J Saxton K E Ritchie W R Chamen W C T Reicosky D C Ribeiro M F S et al.(2007) No-Tillage Seeding in Conservation Agriculture –2nd Edition. CABI and FAO, Rome. 2007: 326.
  5. Balesdent J. and Balabane M. (1996). Major contribution of roots to soil carbon storage inferred from maize cultivated soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 28: 1261–1263.
  6. Ball, D. F. (1964) Loss-On-Ignition as an Estimate of Organic Matter and Organic Carbon in Non-Calcareous Soils. J. of Soil Science 15: 84­92.
  7. Balota E L, Filho A C, Andrade D S and Dick R P. (2004). Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on microbial biomass and C and N mineralization in a Brazilian Oxisol.Soil Till. Res. 77: 137–145.
  8. Batjes N H and Sombroek W G. (1997). Possibilities for carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical soils.Glob. Change Biol. 3: 161–173.
  9. BatjesN H. (1996). Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world.European J. Soil Sci. 47:151–163.
  10. Beri V, Sidhu BS, Bahl GS, Bhatt AK. (1995). Nitrogen and phosphorus transformations as affected by crop residues management practices and their influence on crop yield. Soil Use and Management 11: 51–54.
  11. Boddy E, Hill P W, Farrar J and Jones D L. (2007). Fast turnover of low molecular weight components of the dissolved organic carbon pool of temperate grassland field soils.Soil Biol. Biochem. 39: 827-835.
  12. Bolinder MA, Andrén O, Kätterer T, de Jong R, VandenBygaart A J, Angers D A, Parent L E and Gregorich E G. (2007). Soil Carbon Dynamics in Canadian Agricultural Ecoregions: Quantifying Climatic Influence on Soil Biological Activity. Agr.Ecosyst. Environ. 122: 461-470.
  13. Brown PL and Dickey D D, (1970). Losses of wheat straw residue under stimulated field condition.Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 34(1): 118-121
  14. Chapin FS III, Matson PA and Mooney HA. (2002). Principles of Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY,USA.
  15. Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2001). Guidelines for the production, processing, labelling and marketing of organically produced foods GL 32–1999 pp-2
  16. Conant R T, Paustian K and Elliott E T. (2001). Grassland management and conversion into grassland: Effects on soil carbon. Ecol Appl. 11(2): 343–355.
  17. Crow S E, Lajtha K, Filley T R, Swanston CW, Bowden R D and Caldwell B A. (2009). Sources of plant-derived carbon and stability of organic matter in soil: Implications for global change. Glob. Change Biol. 15(8): 2003–2019.
  18. Curtin D, Wang H, Selles F, Zentner R P, Biederbeck VO and Campbell C A. (2000). Legume green manure as partial fallow replacement in semi-arid Saskatchewan: effect on carbon fluxes. Can. J. Soil.Sci. 80: 499 –505.
  19. Dai X, Boutton T W, Glaser B, Ansley R J and Zech W. (2005). Black carbon in a temperate mixed-grass savanna.Soil Biol.Biochem. 37:1879–1881
  20. Deen W and Kataki P K. (2003). Carbon sequestration in a long-term conventional versus conservation tillage experiment.SoilTill.Res. 74: 143–150
  21. Derpsch R. Theodor Friedrich, Amir KassamandLiHongwen. (2010). Current status of adoption of no-till farming in the world and some of its main benefits. Int. J. Agric.and Biol. Eng. 3(1): 1 ÿ25.
  22. Dumanski J, Peiretti R, Benites J R, McGarry D and Pieri C. (2006). The paradigm of conservation agriculture.Proc. World Assoc. Soil Water Conserv. P1 58–64.
  23. Durenkamp M, Luo Y and Brookes P C. (2010). Impact of black carbon addition to soil on the determination of soil microbial biomass by fumigation extraction.Soil Biol. Biochem. 42: 2026-2029.
  24. Duxbury J M and Lauren J G. (2004). Enhancing technology adoption for the rice–wheat cropping system of the Indo- Gangetic plains.SM-CRSP Annual Report, Soil Management CRSP, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI.
  25. Enoch,H., Ehrlich-Rogozensky, S. Avronm, M. and Parchornik, A. (1970). A new, portable CO2, gas analyzer and its use in field measurements. Agric. Meteorol. 7:255-262.
  26. ESA (Ecological Society of America). (2000). Carbon Sequestration in Soils. Ecological Society of America, Washington, DC.
  27. FAO. (2001). Soil Carbon Sequestration for Improved Land Management, World Soil Resources Report No. 96, Rome.
  28. FAO/CTIC (2008) Soil carbon sequestration in Conservation Agriculture – A Framework for Valuing Soil Carbon as a Critical Ecosystem Service. Conservation Agriculture Carbon Offset Consultation 2008 October 28-30, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
  29. FAO/CTIC. (2008). Soil carbon sequestration in Conservation Agriculture – A Framework for Valuing Soil Carbon as a Critical Ecosystem Service. Conservation Agriculture Carbon Offset Consultation 2008 October 28-30, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.
  30. Feng Y S and Li XM. (2001). An analytical model of soil organic carbon dynamics based on a simple “hockey stick” function. Soil Sci. 166: 431 - 440.
  31. Fornara D and Tilman D. (2008). Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation. J. Ecol. 9: 314–322.
  32. FSI. 2009. State of Forest Report (2009). Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Dehradun.
  33. Ganeshamurthy A N. (2009). Soil changes following long-term cultivation of pulses. J. Agric. Sci. 147: 699-706.
  34. Gangwar K S, Singh K K, Sharma, S K and Tomar O K. (2006). Alternative tillage and crop residue management in wheat after rice in sandy loam soils of Indo-Gangetic plains.Soil Till Res 88: 242-252
  35. Geesing D, Felker P and Bingham R L. (2000). Influence of mesquite (Prosopisglandulosa) on soil nitrogen and carbon development: implications for global carbon sequestration. J. Arid Env., 46: 157 - 180.
  36. Govaerts B, Verhulst N, Castellanos-Navarrete A, Sayre K D, Dixon J and Dendooven L. (2009). Conservation Agriculture and Soil Carbon Sequestration: Between Myth and Farmer Reality. Crit. Rev.Plant Sci. 28:97–122.
  37. Grace J. (2001). The Global Carbon Cycle.In Levin S. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Volume I. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.
  38. Gregorich E G, Rochette P, McGuire S, Liang B C and Lessard R. (1998). Soluble organic carbon and carbon dioxide fluxes in maize fields receiving spring-applied manure.J.Env. Qual. 27: 209–214.
  39. Gregorich E G, Drury C F and Baldock J A. (2001). Changes in soil carbon under long-term maize in monoculture and legume-based rotation.Can. J. Soil. Sci. 81: 21–31.
  40. Groenendijk F M, Condron L M and Rijkse W C. (2002). Effects of afforestation on organic carbon, nitrogen and sulfur concentrations in New Zealand hill country soils. Geoderma 108: 91– 100.
  41. Haider K. (1986). Changes in substrate composition during the plant residue in soil. In: Microbial communities in Soil. Elsevier Appl. Sci. Pub., New York: 133-147.
  42. Hobbs P R. (2007). Conservation agriculture: what is it and why is it important for future sustainable food production. J. Agric. Sci. 145: 127–137.
  43. Hussain I, Olsson K R and Ebelhar S A. (1999). Long-term tillage effects on soil chemical properties and organic matter fractions. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 63: 1335–1341.
  44. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007) Climate Change: Synthesis Report; Contributions of the Working Groups I, II and III to the fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, pp 104.
  45. IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2000). IPCC Special Report on Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry. Watson R T, Noble I R, Bolin, Ravindranath, N H, Verardo D J and D J Dokken (eds.). Cambridge, UK and New York.
  46. IPCC [Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2003). Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry. Penman, J., Gytarsky, M., Hiraishi, T., Krug, T., Kruger, D., Pipatti, R., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T., Tanabe K. and Wagner, F. (eds). Japan. See: Chp4_3_Projects.pdf
  47. Izaurralde R C, Williams J R, Post W M, Thomson A M, McGill WB, Owens L and Lal R. (2007). Long-term modeling of soil C erosion and sequestration at the small watershed scale. Climatic Change 80(1):73-90.
  48. Jenkinson D S. (1990). The turnover of organic carbon and nitrogen in soil.Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Series B 329: 361–368.
  49. Jenkinson D S and Ayanaba A. (1977). Decomposition of plant material in soil-IV. The effect of rate and addition.J. Soil Sci. 28:417-423.
  50. Johnson M F J, Franzluebbers A J, Weyers S L and Reicosky D C. (2007). Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions - A Review. Environ. Pollut. 150:107-124
  51. Keller, M., Varner, R.K., Dias, J.D, Crill, P., de Oliveira, R.C. Jr. and Asner, G.P. (2005). Soil-Atmosphere exchange of Nitrous Oxide, Nitric oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in logged and undisturbed forest in the Tapajos National Forest, Brazil. Earth Interactions 9(23):1-28.
  52. Kern J S and Johnson M G. (1993). Conservation tillage impacts on national soil and atmospheric carbon levels. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 57: 200 - 210.
  53. Kogel-Knabner I. (2002). The macromolecular organic composition of plant and microbial residues as inputs to soil organic matter.Soil Biol. Biochem. 34: 139-162.
  54. Kuhlbusch T A J. (1998). Black carbon in soils, sediments, and ice cores. In: Meyers, R.A. Encyclopedia of environmental analysis and remediation. New York: Wiley.
  55. Kuhlbusch T, Andreae M. Cachier H, Goldammer J, Lacaux J P, Shea R and Crutzen R. (1996). Black carbon formation by savanna fires: measurements and implications for the global carbon cycle, J. Geophys. Res., 101: 23651-23665.
  56. Kukal S S, Rasool R and Benbi D K. (2009). Soil organic carbon sequestration in relation to organic an inorganic fertilization in rice-wheat and maize-wheat systems.SoilTill. Res. 102:87-92.
  57. Kundu S, Singh M, Saha J K, Biswas A, Tripathi A K and Acharya C L. (2001). Relationship between C addition and storage in a Vertisol under soybean-wheat cropping system in sub-tropical central India.J.Plant Nut.Soil. Sci.164: 483–486.
  58. Lagomarsino A. (2007). Structural andFunctional Diversity of Soil Microbes is Affected by Elevated [CO2] and N Addition in a Poplar Plantation. J. Soils Sediments. 7(6): 399–405.
  59. Lal R, Follett, R F, Stewart B A and Kimble J M. (2007). Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change and advance food security. Soil Sci. 172(12):943-956.
  60. Lal R, Hassan H M and Dumanski J. (1999a). Desertification control to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. In: Carbon sequestration in soils: Science monitoring and beyond eds. N. Rosenberg R.C. Izaurralde and E.L. Columbus Ohio: Malone Battelle Press.
  61. Lal R, Kimble JM, Follett RE, Cole CV. (1998). The Potential of U.S. Cropland to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect. Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, MI, pp. 128.
  62. Lal R. (1995). Global soil erosion by water and carbon dynamics.RLal, J.M Kimble, E Levine, B.A Stewart (Eds.), Soils and Global change, CRC/Lewis, Florida (1995), pp. 131–141
  63. Lal R. (1997). Residue management conservation tillage and soil restoration for mitigating greenhouse effect by CO2- enrichment. Soil Till. Res. 43: 81–107.
  64. Lal R. (2001). The potential of soil carbon sequestration in forest ecosystem to mitigate the greenhouse effect. In: Lal R. (Ed.), Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect.Soil Science Society of America Special Publication, 57 Madison, WI.
  65. Lal R. (2004). Soil carbon sequestration in India.Climatic Change 65: 277–296.
  66. Lal R. J.M. Kimble R.F. Follett and C.V. Cole. (1998). The potential of U.S. cropland to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Chelsea Mich.: Ann Arbor Press.
  67. Lal R. Kimble J M, Follett R F, Cole C V. (1999b). The Potential of U.S. Cropland to Sequester Carbon and Mitigate the Greenhouse Effect.Boca Raton FL: Lewis Publishers.
  68. Lavania U C and Lavania S. (2009). Sequestration of atmospheric carbon into subsoil horizons through deep-rooted gasses- Vetiver grass model.Curr. Sci.India 5(10):618-619
  69. Lehmann J, Gaunt JandRondon M. (2006). Bio-char sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems - A review.Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 11: 403–427.
  70. Lehmann J, Liang B and Solomon D. (2005). Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy for mapping nano-scale distribution of organic carbon forms in soil: application to black carbon particles.Glob.Biogeo.Cyc19: GB1013.
  71. Li CS, Frolking S, Harris R and Rolking S. (1994). Modeling carbon biogeochemistry in agricultural soils.Glob.Biogeo.Cyc. 8: 237 - 254.
  72. MacDicken K (1997). AGuide to Monitoring Carbon Storage in Forestry and Agroforestry Projects, Arlington, VA: Winrock International. 
  73. Maji A K, Obi Reddy G P and Sarkar D. (2010). Degraded and Wastelands of India:Status and Spatial Distribution, ICAR, New Delhi, pp. 167.
  74. Mann L K. (1986). Changes in soil carbon storage after cultivation.Soil Sci. 142: 279–288.
  75. Matovic D. 2011. Biochar as a viable carbon sequestration option: Global and Canadian perspective. Energy 36: 2011- 2016.
  76. McCalla T M. 1958. Microbial and related studies of stubble mulching. J. Soil Water Conserv. 13: 255–258.
  77. Metz B, Davidson O, Coninck H, Loos M and Meyer L. (2005). Editors IPCC, 2005: carbon dioxide capture and storage. Cambridge United Kingdom and New York NY USA: Cambridge University Press.
  78. MNRE (2009). Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Resources, Govt. of India, New biomassresources.
  79. Motta A C V, Reeves D W, Feng Y, Burmester C H and Raper R L. (2001). Management systems to improve soil quality for cotton production in a degradd silt loam soil in Alabama (USA).In: Conservation Agriculture A World Wide Challenge The First World Congress on Conservation Agriculture Madrid 1-5 October 2001: 219-222
  80. NAAS (2012). Management of Crop Residues in the Context of Conservation Agriculture. Policy Paper No. 58, National Academyof Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi. 12 p.
  81. NAAS (2014). Carbon Economy in Indian Agriculture. Policy Paper No. 69, National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi: 19 p.
  82. Neufeldt H, Resck D V S and Ayarza M A. (2002). Texture and land use effects on soil organic matter in CerradoOxisols central Brazil. Geoderma 107: 151– 164.
  83. Nguyen B, Lehmann J, Kinyangi J, Smernik R, Riha S J and, Engelhard M H., (2008). Long-term black carbon dynamics in cultivated soil.Biogeochemistry 89: 295-308.
  84. NRSC (National Remote Sensing Centre) (2008). Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level using Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System, Project Manual, Department of Space and Department of Biotechnology, National Remote Sensing Centre, Indian Space Research Organization, Department of Space, Government of India, Balanagar, Hyderabad.
  85. Parker D T. (1962). Parker Decomposition in the field of buried and surface-applied cornstalk residue Soil Science Society of America Proceeding, 26:559–562
  86. Parker MA, Nyakatawa EZ, Reddy KC and Reeves DW. (2002). Soil carbon and nitrogen as influenced by tillage and poultry litter in North Alabama. Pp. 283-287. In: E. van Santen (ed.) Making Conservation Tillage Conventional: Building a Future on 25 years of Research, Proceedings of the 25th Annual Southern Conservation Tillage Conference for Sustainable Agriculture, Auburn AL, 24-26 June 2002.
  87. Pathak H, Bhatia A, Jain N and Aggarwal PK.2010. Greenhouse gas emission and mitigation in Indian agriculture – A review. In: ING Bulletins on Regional Assessment of Reactive Nitrogen, Bulletin No. 19 (Ed. Bijay-Singh), SCON- ING, New Delhi, 34 p.
  88. Paustian K, Six J, Elliott E T and Hunt H W. (2000). Management options for reducing CO2 emissions from agricultural soils. Biogeochemistry 48:147-163.
  89. Puget P and Drinkwater L E. (2001). Short-term dynamics of root- and shoot-derived carbon from a leguminous green manure.Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 65: 771–779.
  90. Rasmussen P E, Albrecht, S L and Smiley R W. (1998). Soil C and N changes under tillage and cropping systems in semi-arid Pacific Northwest agriculture.Soil Till. Res. 47:197–205.
  91. Rasse D P, Rumpel C, Dignac M F. (2005). Is soil carbon mostly root carbon? Mechanisms for a specific stabilisation. Plant Soil. 269: 341-356.
  92. Ravindranath N H and Ostwald M. (2008). Carbon Inventory Methods: Handbook for greenhouse gas inventory, carbon mitigation and roundwood production projects. Advances in Global Change Research, 29.
  93. Rees R M, Bingham I J, Baddeley J A, Watson C A. (2005). The role of plants and land management in sequestering soil carbon in temperate arable and grassland ecosystems.Geoderma. 128: 130-154.
  94. Reicosky D C, Kemper W D, Langdale G W, Douglas Jr. C L and Rasmussen P E. (1995). Soil organic matter changes resulting from tillage and biomass production.J. Soil WaterConserv. 50: 253–261.
  95. Reicosky, D.C. (1997). Tillage-induced CO2 emission from soil.Nut.Cyc.Agroeco. 49: 273–285.
  96. Roberts K G, Gloy B A, Joseph S, Scott N R and Lehmann J. (2010). Life cycle assessment of biochar systems: estimated the energetics, economic and climate change potential. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41: 827–833.
  97. Rochester L J. (2011). Sequestering Carbon in minimum tilled clay soils used for irrigated cotton and grain production. Soil Till. Res. 112: 1-7.
  98. Roldan A, Salinas-Garcia J R, Alguacil M M and Caravaca F. (2005). Changes in soil enzyme activity, fertility, aggregation and C sequesteration mediated by conservation tillage practices and water regime in a maize field.Appl. Soil Ecol. 30:11–20
  99. Sanderman J, Farquharson R and Baldock J. (2010). Soil carbon sequestration potential: A review for Australian agriculture. A report prepared for the Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency CSIRO National Research Flagships.
  100. Santos N, JefersonDieckowCime´ lio, BayerMolin R, NerildeFavarettoVolneiPauletti andJonatasThiagoPiva. (2011). Forages cover crops and related shoot and root additions in no-till rotations. to C sequestration in a subtropical Ferralsol. Soil Till. Res. 111: 208–218.
  101. Schlesinger W H. (1990). Evidence from chronosequence studies for a low carbon-storage in soils.Nature 343: 232.
  102. Shield J A and Paul E A. (1973). Decomposition of 14C labelled plant material under field conditions. Can. J.Soil Sci. 53: 297-306.
  103. Siligrams M and Chambers B J. (2002). .Effects of long term straw management and fertilizer nitrogen additions on soil nitrogen supply and crop yields at two sites in eastern England. J.Agric.Sci., 139: 115-127.
  104. Silver W L and Miya R K. (2001). Global patterns in root decomposition: comparisons of climate and litter quality effects. Oecologia. 129:407-419.
  105. Singh Y and Sidhu H S. (2014). Management of Cereal Crop Residues for Sustainable Rice-Wheat Production System in the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India.Proc Indian NatnSci Acad. 80: 95-114
  106. Singh Y, Singh B and Timsina J. (2005). Crop residue management for nutrient cycling and improving soil productivity in rice-based cropping systems in the tropics.AdvAgron 85: 269-407
  107. Six J, Elliott E T andPaustian K. (2000). Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: a mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biol.Biochem., 32: 2099–2103.
  108. Soil Science Society of America, (2001). Carbon Sequestration: Position of the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA). SSSA, Madison, WI.Available at pos_paper_carb_seq.pdf.
  109. Soon Y K and Arshad M A. (2005). Tillage and liming effects on crop and labile soil nitrogen in an acid soil.SoilTill. Res. 80:23–33.
  110. Soussana J F, Loiseau P, Viuchard N, Ceschia E, Balesdent J, Chevallier T and Arrouays D. (2004). Carbon cycling and sequestration opportunities in temperate grasslands.Soil Use Man. 20: 219–230.
  111. Souza E D, Costa S E V G A, Lima C V S, Anghinoni I, Meurer E J, Carvalho P C D. (2008). Carbonoorgaˆnico e fo´ sforomicrobianoemsistema de integrac¸a˜oagri-cultura-pecua´ riasubmetido a diferentesintensidades de pastejoemplantiodireto.Rev.Bras. Ci. Solo 2: 1273–1282.
  112. Steinbeiss S, Besler H, Engels C, Temperton V M, Buchmann N, Roscher C, Kreutziger Y, Baade J, Habekost M and Gleixner G. (2008). Plant diversity positively affects short-term soil carbon storage in experimental grasslands. Glob. Change Biol. 14: 2937–2949.
  113. Studdert G A and Echeverria H E. (2000). Crop rotations and nitrogen fertilization to manage soil organic carbon dynamics.Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 64: 1496–1503.
  114. Sundermeier A, Reeder Rand Lal R. ( 2005 a) Soil Carbon Sequestration—Fundamentals. Extension Fact sheet.Food Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, USA. AEX-510-505:1
  115. Sundermeier A, Reeder Rand Lal R. (2005b) Soil Carbon Sequestration—Fundamentals. Extension Fact sheet.Food Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, USA. AEX-510-05:2
  116. Unger P W. (1990). Conservation tillage systems.Adv. Soil Sci., 13: 27–68.
  117. USDA, (2007). Measurement Guidelines for the Sequestration of Forest Carbon USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report NRS-18.Pearson, T.R.H., Brown, S.L., and Birdsey R.A. (authors). USA.
  118. VenkateshM S, Hazra K K, Ghosh P K, Praharaj C S and Kumar N. (2013). Long-term effect of pulses and nutrient management on soil carbon sequestration in Indo-Gangetic plains of India.Can. J. Soil Sci. 93: 127-136.
  119. Verchot LV and Singh VP (2009). Carbon Sequestration Opportunities with Smallholder Communities: Forestry, Agriculture and Agro-Forestry. In: 4th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture 4-7th February, 2009 at New Delhi: 351-361.
  120. Verheijen F G A, Jeffery S, Bastos A C, van der Velde M and Diafas I. (2010). Biochar Application to Soils. Key note lecture at Biochar Workshop, New Zealand Biochar Research Centre, Massey University, Palmerston North, 11th- 12th February, 2010.
  121. Wang Q, Yuncong Li and Ashok A. (2010). Growing Cover Crops to Improve Biomass Accumulation and Carbon Sequestration: A PhytotronStudy.J. Environ. Protection 1(2):145-149
  122. West T O and Post W M. (2002). Soil organic carbon sequestration rates for crops with reduced tillage and enhanced rotation.Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66:1930-1946.
  123. West TO and Marland G. (2002). Net carbon flux from agriculture: methodology for full carbon cycle analyses. Environ. Pollution 116: 439–444.
  124. Whalen J K and Chang C. (2002). Macroaggregate characteristics in cultivated soils after 25 annual manure applications.Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J.66: 1637 - 1647.
  125. Whipps J M and Lynch J M. (1983). Sunstrate flow and utilization in the rhizosphere of cereals.New Phytologist. 95: 605-623.
  126. White P M and Rice C W. (2009). Tillage Effects on Microbial and Carbon Dynamics during Plant Residue Decomposition. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 73: 138-145.
  127. Willer H and Kilcher L. (2012). Eds.The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics and Emerging Trends 2012.Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL), Frick, and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), Bonn.
  128. Wilson H M and Al-Kaisi M M. (2008). Crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization effect on soil CO2 emissions in central Iowa. Appl. Soil Ecol. 39: 264 – 270
  129. Woomer P L, Martin A, Albrecht A, Resck D V S and Scharpenseel H W. (1994). The importance of management of soil organic matter in the tropics.In P.L. Woomer and M.J. Swift, eds. Biological management of tropical soil fertility, pp. 74–80. Chichester, UK, John Wiley.
  130. Zimmeman A R. (2010). Abiotic and microbial oxidation of laboratory-based black carbon (biochar).Environ. Sci. Technol. 44: 1295–1301.

Editorial Board

View all (0)