Residual feed intake-An emerging system for selection of efficient animals: A review
Citation :- Residual feed intake-An emerging system for selection ofefficient animals: A review .Agricultural Reviews.2016.(37):66-71
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal’s actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.
Residual feed intake
- Alford, A.R., Hegarty, R.S., Parnell, P.F., Cacho, O.J., Herd, R.M. and Griffith, G.R. (2006). The impact of breeding to reduce residual feed intake on enteric methane emission from the Australian beef industry. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 46: 813–820.
- Archer, J.A., Reverter, A. and Herd, R.M. (2002). Genetic variation in feed intake and efficiency of mature beef cows and relationships with postweaning measurements. In: world congress on genetics applied to livestock production, 7, 2002, Montpellier. Proceedings Montpellier: World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. 31: 221-224.
- Arthur, P.F., Herd, R.M. and Wilkins, J.F. (2005). Maternal productivity of Angus cows divergently selected for postweaning residual feed intake. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 45: 985-993.
- Arthur, P.F., Renand, G. and Krauss, D. (2001). Genetic and phenotypic relationships among different measures of growth and feed efficiency in young Charolais bulls. Livest. Prod. Sci. 68: 131-139.
- Hayes, B.J., Chamberlain, A.J. and Goddard, M.E. (2006). Use of markers in linkage equilibrium with QTL in breeding programs. In: World congress on genetics applied to livestock production, 8., 2006, Belo Horizonte. Proceedings Belo Horizonte: World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. Communication No., 30-06.
- Hegarty, R.S., Goopy, J.P. and Herd, R.M. (2007). Cattle selected for lower residual feed intake have reduced daily methane production. J. Anim. Sci. 85: 1479-1486.
- Herd, R.M., Archer J.A. and Arthur, P.F. (2003). Reducing the cost of beef production through genetic improvement in residual feed intake: Opportunity and challenges to application. J. Anim. Sci. 81: E9-E17.
- Herd, R.M., Hegarty, R.S. and Dicker, R.W. (2002). Selection for residual feed intake improves feed conversion ratio on pasture. Anim. Prod. Aust. 24: 85-88.
- Herd, R.M., Oddy, V.H. and Richardson, E.C. (2004). Biological basis for variation in residual feed intake in beef cattle. 1. Review of potential mechanisms. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44: 423-430.
- Koch, R.M., Swinger, L.A., Chambers D. and Gregory, K.E. (1963). Efficiency of feed use in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 22: 486-494.
- Moore, K.L., Johnston, D.J. and Graser, H.U. (2005). Genetic and phenotypic relationships between insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and net feed intake, fat and growth traits in Angus beef cattle. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 56: 211-218.
- National Research Council- NRC. (1996). Nutrient requirements for beef cattle, 7.ed: National Academic Press, National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C.
- Nkrumah, J.D., Okine, E.K. and Mathison, G.W. (2006). Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behaviour with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85: 145-153.
- Nkrumah, J.D., Sherman, E.L. and LI, C. (2007). Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 85: 3170-3181.
- Residual Feed Intake (Net Feed Efficiency) in Beef Cattle. (2006). Government of Alberta: Agriculture and Rural Development.
- Richardson, E.C. and Herd, R.M. (2004). Biological basis for variation in residual feed intake in beef cattle. 2. Synthesis of results following divergent selection. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 44: 431-440.
- Richardson, E.C., Herd, R.M. and Oddy, V.H. (2001). Body composition and implications for heat production of Angus steer progeny of parents selected for and against residual feed intake. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 41: 1065-1072.
- Robinson, D.L., and Oddy, V.H. (2004). Genetic parameters for feed efficiency, fatness, muscle area and feeding behaviour of feedlot finished beef cattle. Livest. Prod. Sci. 90: 255–270.
- Schenkel, F.S., Miller, S.P. and Wilton, J.W. (2004). Genetic parameters and breed differences for feed efficiency, growth and body composition traits of young beef bulls. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84: 177–185.
- Steinfeld, H., Gerber, P. and Wassenaar, T. (2006). Livestock’s long shadow Environmental issues and options. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Rome. 408p.
- Tixier-Boichard, M., Bordas, A. and Renand, G. (2002). Residual food consumption as a tool to unravel genetic components of food intake. In: World congress on genetics applied to livestock production, 7, 2002, Montpellier. Proceedings Montpellier: World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. 31: 213-220.