A Review of Social Learning as a Function of Student-centered Outreach in African Universities

DOI: 10.18805/ag.R-123    | Article Id: R-123 | Page : 216-222
Citation :- A Review of Social Learning as a Function of Student-centered Outreach in African Universities.Agricultural Reviews.2019.(40):216-222
David Ekepu, Gabriel Karubanga , Jacob Godfrey Agea and John James Okiror dekepu@gmail.com
Address :
Department of Extension and Innovation Studies, College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box. 7062, Kampala, Uganda.
Submitted Date : 7-05-2019
Accepted Date : 3-09-2019

Abstract

There are attempts in African universities to strengthen their engagement with communities through student-centered outreach (S-C-O). Although the concept of social learning has been introduced in S-C-O, there is still limited theoretical understanding of how the mechanism of social learning in the S-C-O model works due to inadequate availability of indicators for empirical assessment of social learning in S-C-O programmes. This review paper explores possible indicators for measuring social learning in S-C-O. A desk review was conducted to obtain literature about the key concepts of the university outreach and social learning. A thematic-content analysis was employed to obtain indicators for measuring social learning. Our review has revealed that communities of practice theory (CPT) of social learning provides a conceptual framework for analysis of social learning in S-C-O. The key tenets of CPT include practice, community, identity and meaning. This implies that social learning occurs through collaborative learning processes as a result of social participation. Thus, efforts to investigate social learning in the S-C-O model should focus on farmers in order to assess their interactions in the prevailing social setting and/or institutional context.

Keywords

Communities of practice Indicators Outreach Student-centered Social learning

References

  1. Adipala, E. and Egeru, A. (2018). Pushing the frontier of Africa’s agricultural universities to contribute to Africa’s growth and development. Retrieved from http://repository.ruforum.org
  2. Angelle, P. S. (2008). Communities of Practice Promote Shared Learning for Organizational Success. Middle School Journal, 39: 52–58. https://doi.org/10.1080/00940771.2008.11461654
  3. Argyris, C. (2003). A Life Full of Learning. Organization Studies, 24: 1178–1192. https://doi.org/10.1177/01708406030247009
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy : the exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. Retrieved from https://www.worldcat.org/title/self-efficacy-the-exercise-of-control/oclc/36074515\
  5. Bandura, A. and Walters, R. H. (1977). Social learning theory (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-hall.
  6. Cai, T. and Abbott, E. (2013). Using Video as a Replacement or Complement for the Traditional Lecture/Demonstration Method in Agricultural Training in Rural Uganda. Journal of Applied Communications, 97: https://doi.org/10.4148/1051-0834.1127
  7. Edmondson, A. (1999). Psychological Safety and Learning Behavior in Work Teams. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: https://doi.org/10.2307/2666999
  8. Erickson, M. S. (2010). Investigating community impacts of a university outreach program through the lens of service-learning and community engagement Investigating community impacts of a university outreach program through the lens of service learning and community engagement. Retrieved from https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd
  9. Farnsworth, V., Kleanthous, I. and Wenger-Trayner, E. (2016). Communities of Practice as a Social Theory of Learning: A Conversation with Etienne Wenger. British Journal of Educational Studies, 64: 139–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/00071005.2015.1133799
  10. Fletcher, M. and Prashantham, S. (2011). Knowledge assimilation processes of rapidly internationalising firms: longitudinal case studies of Scottish SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 18:475-501.
  11. Graven, M. and Lerman, S. (2003). Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 6: 185-194. https://doi.org/10.1023/A
  12. Grobbelaar, S., Tijssen, R. and Dijksterhuis, M. (2017). University-driven inclusive innovations in the Western Cape of South Africa: Towards a research framework of innovation regimes. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, 9: 7–19. https://doi.org/10.1080/20421338.2016.1225549
  13. Handley, K., Sturdy, A. and Fincham, R. (2006). Within and Beyond Communities of Practice: Making sense of Learning through Participation, Identity and Practice. Journal of Management Studies, 43: https://doi.org/10.1159/000355499
  14. Kalule, S.W. and Ongeng, D. (2016). Embedding community engagement in University training curricula : Experiences from Gulu University in Uganda. Fifth RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference 17 - 21 October 2016, Cape Town, South Africa, 14: 409–413.
  15. Kalule, S. ., Mugonola, B., Odongo, W. and Ongeng, D. (2014). University student-centered outreach for rural innovations and community transformation in northern Uganda. Fourth RUFORUM Biennial Regional Conference 21 - 25 July 2014, Maputo, Mozambique:  635–647.
  16. Kalule, S. W., Odongo, W., Kule, E., Ndyomugyenyi, E. K., Omara, P. and Ongeng, D. (2016). Conceptualizing the Student-Centered Outreach Model for experiential learning and community transformation. African Journal of Rural Development, 1: 219–227.
  17. Kalule, S. W., Sseguya, H., Ongeng, D. and Karubanga, G. A. (2019a). Contextual Determinants of Learning Behaviour Differentials amongst Host-farmers of University-Student Outreach in Uganda. Advances in Agricultural Science, 7: 33–47.
  18. Kalule, S. W., Sseguya, H., Ongeng, D., Karubanga, G. (2019b). Facilitating conditions for farmer learning behaviour in the student-to-farmer university outreach. The Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/1389224X.2019.1604389
  19. Karubanga, G., Kibwika, P., Okry, F. and Sseguya, H. (2016). Empowering farmers to learn and innovate through integration of video-mediated and face-to-face extension approaches: The case of rice farmers in Uganda. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 2. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1274944
  20. Karubanga, G., Kibwika, P., Okry, F. and Sseguya, H. (2017). How farmer videos trigger social learning to enhance innovation among smallholder rice farmers in Uganda. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 3: 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2017.1368105
  21. Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  22. Mulu-Mutuku, M., Tarus, R. J., Otieno, E. O. and Mungai, N. W. (2017). Farmers’ perceptions regarding Egerton university community engagement activities. African Journal of Rural Development, 2: 523–534.
  23. Nampala, P., Kityo, R. and Adipala, E. (2016). Differentiated Community Engagement Approaches but same mission: University Outreach programs in Africa. African Journal of Rural Development, 1.
  24. Noguera-Méndez, P., Molera, L. and Semitiel-García, M. (2016). The role of social learning in fostering farmers’ pro-environmental values and intentions. Journal of Rural Studies, 46: 81–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrurstud.2016.06.003
  25. Pahl-Wostl, C., Nilsson, C., Gupta, J. and Tockner, K. (2011). Societal Learning Needed to Face the Water Challenge. Ambio, 40: 549–553. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-011-0149-1
  26. Pahl-Wostl, C., Tàbara, D., Bouwen, R., Craps, M., Dewulf, A., Mostert, E. and Taillieu, T. (2008). The importance of social learning and culture for sustainable water management. Ecological Economics, 64: 484–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.08.007
  27. Preece, J. (2013). Service Learning and Community Engagement in South African Universities: Towards an “Adaptive Engagement” Approach. Alternation Special Edition, 9: 265–291.
  28. Ramesh, S.C.N. and Rana, S.S. (2016). Resource Conservation Technologies (RCTs)-Needs and future prospects: A review. Agricultural Reviews, 37: 257-267. DOI: 10.18805/ag.v37i4.6456.
  29. Reed, M. S., Evely, A. C., Cundill, G., Fazey, I., Glass, J., Laing, A. and Stringer, L. C. (2010). What is social learning? Ecology and Society.
  30. Singh, N. and Gupta, N. (2016). ICT based decision support systems for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in India: A review. Agricultural Reviews, 37: 309-316. DOI: 10.18805/ag.v37i4.6461.
  31. Sol, J., Beers, P. J. and Wals, A. E. J. (2013). Social learning in regional innovation networks: trust, commitment and reframing as emergent properties of interaction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 49:35–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JCLEPRO.2012.07.041.
  32. Ssebaggala, G.L., Kibwika, P., Kyazze, B.F. (2017). Contextual mismatch of interventions for reduction of postharvest losses in rice: Farmer perceptions, practices and innovations in Eastern Uganda. Agric. Sci. Digest, 37:  132-136. DOI:10.18805/asd.v37i2.7988.
  33. Tabara, J. D. and Pahl-Wostl, C. (2007). Sustainability learning in natural resource use and management. Ecology and Society, 12. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-02063-120203
  34. Tran, T. A., James, H. and Pittock, J. (2018). Social learning through rural communities of practice: Empirical evidence from farming households in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Learning, Culture and Social Interaction, 16: 31–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lcsi.2017.11.002
  35. Waters-Bayer, A., van Veldhuizen, L., Wongtschowski, M. and Wettasinha, C. (2006). Recognising and enhancing local innovation processes: PROLINNOVA working paper, 13.
  36. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice : learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  37. Wenger, E. (2010). Communities of Practice and Social Learning Systems: the Career of a Concept. In Social Learning Systems and Communities of Practice: 179–198. London: Springer London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84996-133-2_11

Global Footprints