FORMS OF SOIL POTASSIUM-A REVIEW

DOI: 10.5958/j.0976-0741.35.1.008    | Article Id: R-1109 | Page : 64-68
Citation :- FORMS OF SOIL POTASSIUM-A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2014.(35):64-68
M. Lalitha and M. Dhakshinamoorthy1
Address : National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Bangalore- 560 024, India

Abstract

The knowledge about different forms and availability of potassium is must while studying the response of crops to K. Because Potassium supply to crop plants is a complex phenomenon involving relationships among various K fractions in soil. Potassium availability to plants in general is governed by different forms of K viz water soluble K, exchangeable K, fixed K and mineral K. Plants utilize not only the readily available K but also the non-exchangeable and mineral K during the crop growth. The potassium availability to plants is determined by the rate of change in the dynamic equilibrium between different forms of K in the soil which in turn is controlled by the mineral make up, rate of weathering and exchange properties of the soil.

Keywords

Exchangeable K Forms of K Non- exchangeable K Total K and Water soluble K

References

  1. Ahmed, N. and Walia C.S. (1999). Profile distribution of various forms of potassium in some landforms of Bundelkhand region. J. Potassium Res., 15: 1-4.
  2. Aide, M. T, Cwick G. J. and M. F. Cumming. (1999). Clay mineralogy and potassium status of selected soils in the glacial Lake Agassiz region of central Manitoba. Can. J. Soil Sci, 79: 141-148.
  3. Anil Sharma, Jalali V.K., Arya V.M. and Pradeep Rai. (2009). Distribution of Various Forms of Potassium in Soils Representing Intermediate Zone of Jammu Region. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 57(2):205-207
  4. Barre, P., Velde B., Fontaine C., Catel N. and Abbadie L.. (2008). Which 2 : 1 clay minerals are involved in the soil potassium reservoir? Insights from potassium addition or removal experiments on three temperate grassland soil clay assemblages, Geoderma. 146(1-2): 216-223.
  5. Baruah, H.C., Bora D.K., Baruah T.C. and Nath A.K. (1991). Fixation of potassium in three major soil orders of Assam. J. Pot. Res., 7(3): 170-175.
  6. Basumatary, A and Bordoloi R.K. (1992). Forms of K in some soils of Assam in relation to soil properties. J.Indian.Soc.Soil.Sci, 40; 443-446.
  7. Bear, F.E. (1958). Chemistry of the Soil. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.
  8. Brady, N.C and Weil R.R. (2002). The Nature and Properties of Soils, 13th Ed. Pearson,Delhi.
  9. Das, K. Sign S.K. and Shyampura R.L. (1993). Forms of K in relation to land form and soil properties of Basaltic terrian. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 41: 557-559.
  10. Dhillon, S. K., P. S. Sidhu, K. S. Dhillon and Y. P Sharma. (1985). Distribution of various potassium forms in some benchmark soils of North-West India. J. Pot. Res., 1:154-165.
  11. Ekambaram, S. and Kothandaraman G.V. (1983). Influence of potassium application on the progressive changes in the different forms of K in soils during crop growth. Indian Potash J., 8: 16-20.
  12. Ganeshamurthy, A.N. and Biswas C.R. (1985). Contribution of potassium from non-exchangeable sources in soil to crops. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 33: 60-66.
  13. Ghosh, B.N and Mukhopadhyay A.K. (1999). Prediction of K supplying power of a soil from its releasing power. Int. J. Trop. Agric. 17(1-4): 279-285.
  14. Grewal, J.S. and Kanwar J. S.. (1973). Potassium fixation in some soils of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal. J. Ind. Soc. Soil Sci. 15: 237-244.
  15. Jayaraj, G. and Dhanapalan Mosi A. (1973). Studies on different forms of potassium in the mechanical fractions of typical soils of Tamil nadu. Madras Agric. J., 60: 876-879.
  16. Karmarkar, S.V., Dudley L.M., Jurinak J.J. and James D.W. (1991). Chloride and perchlorate influence on calcium- potassium and magnesium-potassium exchange. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 55:1268-1274.
  17. Martin, H.W and Sparks D.L. (1985). On the behavior of Nonexchangeable potassium in soils. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 16: 133-162.
  18. Martins, H.W and D.L. Sparks. (1983). Kinetics of non exchangeable K release from two coastal plain soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 47: 883-887.
  19. Mukhopadhyay, S.S and Datta S.C. (2001). Potassium availability in relation to soil mineralogy in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. In: Proceedings of Potassium in Indian agriculture. International Potash Institute. Gurgaon.pp. 33 – 44.
  20. Murthy, G.K. and Singh T.A. (1975). Potassium, phosphorous and calcium changes in submerged calcareous soils as affected by reduction condition II RISO. 25(1):21-29.
  21. Nagarajan, P.S. (1980). Evaluation of selected soil test methods and crop response studies for K with rice M.Sc. (Ag) Thesis submitted to and approved by TNAU, CBE.
  22. Olk, D. C., Gassman K.G. and Garlson R.M. (1995). Kinetics of potassium fixation in vermiculite soils under different moisture regimes. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 59: 423–429.
  23. Pal, Y., Gilkes R.J. and Wong M.T.F. (2001). Mineralogy and potassium release from some Western Australian soils and their size fractions. Austr. J. Soil Res., 39:813-822.
  24. Pasricha, N.S. (2002). Potassium dynamics in soils in relation to crop nutrition. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 50(4): 333-344.
  25. Pavlov, K. V. (2007). The assessment of the potassium status of soil by the proportion between different forms of potassium. Eurasian Soil Sci. 40(7): 792–794.
  26. Perkins, A.H.F. (1973). Potassium fixation and reconstitution of micaceous structures in soil. Soil Sci. 116: 31-35.
  27. Ramamoorthy, B. and Velayutham M. (1976). N, P & K in soil - chemistry, Form & availability in soil fertility - Theory & practice compiled & edited by J.S. Kanwar, I.C.A.R., Newdelhi.
  28. Ramanathan, K. M., Francis J. H., Subbaiah S. and Krishna Murthy K. K. (1981). An incubation study on the fixation of NH4, P and K by a laterite soil under two different moisture levels. Madras agric. J. 68(2): 90-95.
  29. Ramanathan, K.M. (1978). An evaluation of potassium availability indices of some soils of South India. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 26: 198-202.
  30. Ranganathan, P. and T. Satyanarayana. (1980). Studies on potassium status of soils of Karnataka. J.Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 28:148-153.
  31. Rubio, B. and Gil-Sotres, F. (1997). Distribution of four major forms of potassium in soils of Galicia (N.W. Spain). Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 28: 1805–1816.
  32. Sahu, S. and Gupta, S. K. (1987). Fixation and release of potassium in some alluvial soils. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 35:35–40.
  33. Sardi, K. and G. Csitari. (1998). Potassium fixation of different soil types and nutrient levels. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 29: 1843–1850.
  34. Schroeder, D. (1974). Proc. 10th cong. Int. Potash. Inst. Potassium research and Agrl production, p. 53 - 63.
  35. Sekhon, G.S., (1999). Potassium in Indian soils and crops. Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy 65:83-108.
  36. Sharma, B.D., Mukhopadhyay S.S. and J.S. Sawhney. (2006). Distribution of potassium fractions in relation to landforms in a Himalayan catena. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science. 52:469- 476.
  37. Sharpley, A. N. (1989). Relationship between soil potassium forms and mineralogy. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 52: 1023- 1028.
  38. Sharpley, A. N. (1990). Reaction of fertilizer potassium in soils of different mineralogy. Soil Sci. 149: 44-51.
  39. Sidhu, P.S. and Dhillon S.K. (1985). Mineralogy of potassium in some typical soils of Punjab. J. Pot. Res., 1: 17-27.
  40. Simonsson, M. et al. (2007). Potassium release and fixation as a function of fertilizer application rate and soil parent material.Geoderma. 140(1-2): 188-198.
  41. Singh Y. P., Mahendra Singh and Rajendra Singh. (1985). Forms of soil potassium in Western part of Haryana. J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci. 35(2):284-291.
  42. Singh M., A.K. Tripathi and D.D. Reddy. (2002). Potassium balance and release kinetics of non-exchangeable K in a Typic Haplustert as influenced by cattle manure application under a soybean-wheat system. Aust. J. Soil Res. 40:533-541.
  43. Sparks, D.L. (1987). Potassium Dynamics in soils. Adv. Soil. Sci. 6:1-63.
  44. Sparks, D.L. and P.M. Huang. (1985). Physical chemistry of soil potassium. In Potassium in agriculture. (Eds RD Munson et al.) pp. 201-276.
  45. Srinivasa Rao, Ch., A. Subba Rao and T. Rupa. (2000). Plant mobilization of reserve potassium from fifteen smectitic soils in relation to mineralogy and soil test potassium. Soil Sci. 165: 578–586.
  46. Srinivasarao, Ch. and P.N. Takkar. (1997). Evaluation of different extractants for measuring the soil potassium and determination of critical levels for plant available K in smectitic soils for sorghum. J. of Plant Nutrition and Soil Sci. 160(1):103-107.
  47. Tandon, H.C.S and G.S.Sekhan. (1998). K research and agricultural production in India.publications from fertilizer development and consultation organization in New Delhi.
  48. Uribe, E. and Cox, F. R. (1988). Soil properties affecting the availability of potassium in highly weathred soils. Soil Sci.Soc. Am. J. 52: 148–152.
  49. Zawartka L., G. Huszcza-Ciolkowska and E. Szumska. (1999). Effects of Poly and Orthophosphates on the Dynamics of some Macro and Micronutrient Elements in Soil Material of Varied pH. III. Potassium Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 30: 655-661.
  50. Zeng, Q. and P. H. Brown. (2000). Soil potassium mobility and uptake by corn under differential soil moisture regimes. Plant and Soil. 221: 121-134.

Global Footprints