TANNINIFEROUS FEED RESOURCES IN DAIRY ANIMALS: A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC912 | Page : 268 - 276
Citation :- TANNINIFEROUS FEED RESOURCES IN DAIRY ANIMALS: A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2011.(32):268 - 276
Raju Kushwaha*, S.N. Rai, A.K. Singh1, G. Chandra1, M.M. Vaidya1, V.K. Sharma, M.M. Pathan1 and S. Kumar rajuvet15@gmail.com
Address : Dairy Cattle Nutrition Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana 132001, India

Abstract

Use of unconventional feeds is an alternate source to mitigate the shortage of grains and byproducts. Since various unconventional feeds are produced in huge quantities every year and available comparatively at cheaper rate, therefore, the feed industry has a preference to use these materials in order to have maximum benefit from locally available unconventional feeds. Presence of tannin in diets less than 4 % is however, advantageous to ruminants as it acts as natural protein protectant and thus reduces the degradation of protein by forming tannin protein complex (TPC) in the rumen and subsequently enhances the amino acids availability in lower gut thereby increases the rumen bypass protein. It reduces proteolysis of forage protein in the rumen, reduces rumen and plasma ammonia concentrations, reduces blood plasma concentration and increases the net absorption of essential amino acids especially branched chain amino acids from the small intestine. Tannin containing diet improved milk production and reproduction performance in dairy cows. Tannin is also hydrolyzed in the animal system and releases some antioxidants like catechin, epicatechin, catechin gallate, gallic acid etc., which have therapeutic values. These metabolites have certain properties like anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidative immuno-stimulatory and enhancer of reproduction performance. Catechin serves as powerful antioxidant against lipid peroxidation when phospholipid bilayers are exposed to aqueous oxygen radicals. The reproductive efficiency of ewes grazed on L.corniculatus increased the effect on cell mediation by the condensed tannin. These metabolic changes may promote events such as folliculogenesis, conception, attachment, embryo survival, foetal growth and lamb viability. The effect of tannins on animals ranges from beneficial to toxicity depending on the type of animals, age of animals, type and level of tannins in the feeds, the biological activity of tannins, level of tannin intake, quality of basal diets etc.

Keywords

Tanniniferous feed Unconventional feeds Dairy Animals.

References

  1. Aemiro, K. (2002). Studies on chemical and biological inactivation of tannins in animal feed stuff. M.Sc. Thesis, NDRI, Karnal, India.
  2. Alam, M.R., Kabir, A. K., Amin, M.R. and McNill, D.M. (2005). Effect of calcium hydroxide treatment on nutritive and feeding value of Albezia procera for growing goats. Anim. Feed Sci. & Technol. 122: 135-148.
  3. Barman, K. (2004). Biodegradation of tanniniferous feeds and their influence on nutrient utilization and productivity of dairy animals. Ph.D. Thesis, NDRI (Deemed University), Karnal, Haryana.
  4. Barry, T.N. and Mc Nabb, W.C. (1999). The implications of condensed tannin on nutritive values of temperate forage fed to ruminants. Brit. J. of Nutrition. 81: 263-272.
  5. Barry, T. N., and T. R. Manley. (1984). The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pedunculatus for sheep 2. Quantitative digestion of carbohydrates and protein. Brit. J. Nutr. 51:493.
  6. Barry, T.N., Manley, T.R. and Duncan, S.J., (1986).The role of condensed tannins in the nutritional value of Lotus pendiculatus for sheep. 4. Site of carbohydrate and protein digestion as influence by dietary reactive tannin concentrations. Br. J. Nutr. 55:123-137.
  7. BenSalem, H., Atti, N., Priolo, A. and Nefzaoui, A. (2002).Polyethylene glycol in concentrate or feed blocks to deactivate condensed tannins in Acacia cynophylla lindl foliage 1. Effect on lamb intake, digestion and growth of Barbarine lambs. Anim. Sci., 75: 127-135
  8. BenSalem, H., Saghrouni and Nefzaoui, A. (2005a). Attempts to deactivate tannins in fodder shrubs with physical and chemical treatment. Anim. Feed Sci. & Technol. 122:109-121.
  9. Bravo, L., Abia, R., Eastwood, M.A. and Saura Calinto, F. (1998). Degradation of polyphenols (catechin and tannic acid) in the rat intestinal tissue. Effect on colonic fermentation and faecal out put. Brit. J. Nutr. 71: 933-946.
  10. Brooker, J.D., O’Denovan, L.A., Skene, I., Blackall, L. and Muslera, P. (1994). Streptococcus caprinus spp. Nov. A tannin resistant bacteria from feral goats. Lett. Appl. Food Chemistry, 18:1313-1318.
  11. Brooker, J.D., O’Donovan, L., Skene, I. and Sellick, G. (2000). Mechanism of tannin resistance and detoxification in the rumen. In: Brooker, J.D. (Ed.), Tannins in livestock and rumen nutrition, ACIAR proceedings No. 92, pp. 117-122.
  12. Deshpande, S.S., Cheryan, M. and Salunkha, D.K. (1986). Tannins analysis of food products. CRC Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 24: 401-449.
  13. Downing, J.A. and Scaramuzzi, R.J. (1991). Nutrient effects on ovulation rate, ovarian function and the secretion of gonadotrophic and metabolic hormones. J. Rep. Fert. 43: 209-227.
  14. Downing, J.A., Joss, J. and Scaramuzzi, R.J. (1995). A mixture of the branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine increases ovulation rate in ewe when infused during the late luteal phase of the oestrus cycle: an effect that may be mediated by insulin. J. Endocrinology. 145: 315-323.
  15. Dubey, D.K. and Rai, S.N (2006). Effect of different level of PEG-4000 on in vitro nutrient digestibility and gas production in Acacia nilotica pods. In: XII Animal nutrition conference on technological intervention in animal nutrition for rural prosperity, Jan. 7-9, 2006.Gujirat, India.
  16. Dubey, D. (2007). Studies on degradation of tannins from Acacia nilotica pods and their influence on nutrient utilization, milk production and reproduction in dairy animals. Ph.D Thesis, NDRI (Deemed University ), Karnal, Haryana.
  17. Dufour, C., DaSilva, E., Potier, P., Queneau, Y. and Dangles, O. (2002). Gallic esters of sucrose as efficient radical scavengers of lipid peroxidation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 3425-3430.
  18. Errante, J., Barbera, S. and Baldi, C. (1998). Use of hydrolysable tannins in high productive dairy cattle diets. Krmive, 40: 257-261.
  19. Feeney, P. P., (1969). Inhibitory Effect of Oak Leaf Tannins on the Hydrolysis of Proteins by Trypsin. Phytochemistry, 8: 2119-2126
  20. Glick, Z and Joslyn, M.A. (1970). Food intake depression and other metabolic effects of tannic acid in rat. J. Nutr., 100: 509-515.
  21. Krause, O.D., Smith, M.J. and Brooker, D.J. (2005). Tolerance mechanisms of streptococci to hydrolysable and condensed tannins. Anim. Feed. Sci. & Technol. 121: 59-75.
  22. Laque, A., Barry, T.N., McNabb, W.C., Kemp., P.D. and McDonald, M.F. (2003). The effect of grazing Lotus corniculatus during late summer-autumn on reproductive efficiency and wool production in ewes. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 51:385-392.
  23. Lohan, O.P., Lall, D., Vaid, J. and Negi, S.S. (1983). Utilization of oak tree (Quercus incana) fodder in cattle ration and fate of oak leaf tannins in ruminant system. Indian. J. Anim. Sci. 53: 1057-1063.
  24. Luque, A., Barry, T.N. McNabb, W.C., Kemp, P.D. and McDonald, M.F.(2000). The effect of grazing Lotus corniculatus during late summer-autumn on reproductive efficiency and wool production in ewes. Aust. J.Agri. Res. 51: 385-391.
  25. Makkar, H.P.S. (2003a). Effect and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannin and strategies to overcome detrimental effect of feeding tannin rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research, 49: 241-256.
  26. Makkar, H.P.S. and Becker, K. (1997). Adaptation of cattle to tannins: role of praline-rich proteins in oak-fed cattle. Anim. Sci. 67: 277-281.
  27. Makkar, H.P.S. and Singh, B. (1992). Effect of wood Ash on tannin content of oak (Quercus incana) leaves. Bioresour. Technol. 41: 85-86.
  28. Mc Sweeney, C.S., Palmer, B., Mc Neil, D.M. and Krause, D.O. (2001). Microbial interactions with tannins: nutritional consequences for ruminants. Anim. Feed Sci. & Technol. 91: 83-93.
  29. McWilliam, E.L., Barry, T.N., Villalobos, N.L., Cameron, P.N. and Kemp, P.D. (2004).The effect of different levels of poplar (Populus) supplementation on the reproductive performance of ewes grazing low quality drought pasture during mating. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech.,115: 1-18.
  30. Min, B.R., McNabb, W.C., Barry, T.N., Kemp, P.D., Waghorn,G.C. and McDonald, M.F.(1999).The effect of condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus upon reproductive efficiency and wool production in sheep during late summer and autumn. J. Agric. Sci.(Camb.),132:323-334.
  31. Min, B.R., Attwood, G.T., Mc Nabb, W.C. (2003). The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed on fresh temperate forages, a review. Anim. Feed Sci. and Technol., 105:3-19.
  32. Murdiati, T.B.., McSweeney, C.S., Campbell, R.S..F., Stoltz, D.S., (1990). Prevention of hydrolysable tannin toxicity in goat fed Clidemia hirta by calcium hydroxide supplementation. J.Appl. Toxic. 10: 325-331.
  33. Murdiati, T.B., Mc Sweeney and C.S. Lowry, J.R. (1992). Metabolism in sheep of gallic acid, tannic acid and hydrolysable tannin from Terminalia oblongata. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 43: 1307-1319.
  34. Nishida, T., Eruden, B., Hosoda, K., Matsuyama, H., Nakagawa, K., Miyazawa, T. and Shioya, S., (2006). Effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) waste silage and polyethylene glycol on ruminal fermentation and blood components in cattle. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 19:1728-1736.
  35. Odenyo, A.A., Mc Sweeney, C.S., Palmer, B., Negassa, D. and Osuji, P.O. (1999). In vitro screening of rumen fluid samples from indigenous African ruminants provides evidence for rumen fluid with superior capacities to digest tannin-rich fodders. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 50:1147-1157.
  36. Okuda, T., Yoshida T. and Hatano T., (1991).Chemistry and Biological Activity of Tannins in Medicinal Plants. In Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, Vol 5, (Wagner H. and Farnsworth N. R. eds.), Academic Press, London, 129-165.
  37. Percival, S.S. and Sims, C.A. 2002. Wine modifies the effect of alcohol on immune cells of mice. J. Nutrition.130: 1091-1094
  38. Perez-Maldonado, R.A. and Norton, B.W. (1996). The effects of condensed tannins form Desmodium intortum and Calliandra calothyrsus on protein and carbohydrate digestion in sheep and goats. Brit. J. Nutr. 76: 515-533.
  39. Rai, S.N. and Shukla, P.C. (1977). Influence of feeding deoiled salseed meal (DSSM) with urea and molasses on digestibility and balances of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in lactating cows. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 47: 111-115.
  40. Rai, S.N. and Shukla, P.C. (1979). Effect of feeding deoiled salseed meal (DSSM) with urea and molasses diets to milch cows on quantity and quality of milk and blood metabolites. GAU Research J.S, 1479.
  41. Reed, J.D. (1995). Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes. J. Anim. Sci. 73: 1516-1528.
  42. Reed, J. D., H. Soller, and A. Woodward. (1990). Fodder tree and straw diets for sheep: Intake, growth, digestibility and the effects of phenolics on nitrogen utilisation. Anim Feed Sci. & Technol., 30:39.
  43. Rittner, U., and J. D. Reed. (1992). Phenolics and in vitro degradability of protein and fibre in West African browse. J. Sci. Food Agric. 58:21-28.
  44. Rubanza, C.D.K., Shem, M.N., Bakengesa, S.S., Ichinohe, T. and Fujihara, T., (2007). Effects of Acacia nilotica, A. polycantha and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal supplementation on performance of small East African goats fed native pasture hay basal forages. Small Ruminants Research.70:165-173.
  45. Sengar, S.S. and Mudgal, V.D. (1982). Effect of feeding treated and untreated proteins on growth and milk production in goats: effect on feed utilization and quality and quantity of milk produced. Indian. J. Anim. Sci., 52:1047-1051.
  46. Smith, J.F. (1991). A review of recent developments on the effect of nutrition on ovulation rate(the flushing effect) with particular reference to research at ruakura. Proc. New Zealand Soc. Ani. Prod. 51:15-22.
  47. Tandon, M. (2009). Studies on Acacia nilotica pods replacing energy sources in ration of dairy cows on production performance and neutraceutical value of milk and milk products. Ph.D Thesis. Submitted to NDRI,(Deemed University ) Karnal, Haryana.
  48. Terao, J., Piskula, M. and Yao O. (1994). Protective effect of epicatechin, epicatechingallate and quercetin on lipid peroxidation in phospholipid bilayers. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 308: 278-284.
  49. Van Hoven, W. (1984). Tannins and digestibility in greater kudu. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 64(Suppl.):177.
  50. Vitti, D.M., Nozella, E.F., Abedlla, A.L., Bueno, I.C.S., Sila Filho, J.C., Costa, C., Bueno longo, C., Viera, M.E., Carbral Filho, S.C., Godoy, P.B. and Mueller Harvey, I. (2005). The effects of drying and urea treatment on nutritional and anti-nutritional components of browses collected during wet and dry season. Anim. Feed. Sci. & Technol. 122: 123-133.
  51. Waghorn,G.(1996). Condensed tannins and nutrient absorption from small intestine. In: Rode, L.M. (Ed.), Proceeding of the Canadian society of animal sciences. Annual meeting on animal science research development. Ministry of supply & services, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada, pp. 175-189.
  52. Waghorn, G.C. and Shelton, I.D. (1995). Effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pedunculatus on the nutritive value of rye grass Lolium perenne fed to sheep. J. Agricul. Sci. 125: 291–297.
  53. Waghorn, G.C., Shelton, I.D. and McNabb, W.C. (1994). Effect of condensed tannins in Lotus pendiculatus on its nutritive value for sheep. Non nitrogenous aspects. J. Agri. Science (Camb.). 123: 93-107.
  54. Wah, C.S., Sharma, K. and Jackson, M.G. (1977). Studies on various chemicals treatment of Salseed meal to remove or inactive tannins. Indian J. Anim. Sci. 47:8-12.
  55. Wheeler, R.A., Norton, B.W. and Shelton, H.M. (1995). Condensed tannins in Leucaena species and hybrids and implications for nutritive value. In: (H.M. Shelton, C.M. Piggin and J.L. Brewbaker, editors Canberra: ICIAR).Leucaena—Opportunities and Limitations, Proceedings of a workshop held in Bogor, Indonesia, 24– 29th January, 1994, pp. 112–118
  56. Wina, E., Tangendjaja, B. and Susan, I.W.R. (2005). Effect of cropping, soaking in water, hydrochloric acid and calcium hydroxide solution on nutritional value of Acacia villosa for goats. Anim. Feed. Sci., & Technol. 122: 79-92.

Global Footprints