Article Id: ARCC900 | Page : 155 - 171
Citation :- WEED MANAGEMENT IN GROUNDNUT (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA L.) IN INDIA - A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2011.(32):155 - 171
R.S. Jat, H. N. Meena, A. L. Singh, Jaya N. Surya and J. B. Misra
Address : Directorate of Groundnut Research, P.B. 05, Ivnagar Road, Junagadh- 362 001, India


Groundnut crop is highly susceptible to weed infestation because of its slow growth in the initial stages upto 40 days, short plant height and under ground pod bearing habit. Groundnut-weeds comprise diverse plant species from grasses to broad-leaf weeds and sedges, and cause substantial yield losses (15-75%) which are more in rainfed Spanish bunch type than in irrigated Virginia type groundnut. Besides this, weeds are preferred host of several insect-pests, and the vectors of many important organisms causing diseases in groundnut. Weeds also affect groundnut through the production of harmful allelochemicals. Thus, weed control is the foremost critical production factor in groundnut cultivation and in this review, various physical, chemical, mechanical and cultural methods that curtail the growth and spread of weeds have been discussed. Herbicides were found to be selective in controlling many weeds in monocropping as well as in cropping systems. Herbicides, though, selective, efficient and cost effective weed control measure in controlling weeds in groundnut, the maximum benefit can be achieved by combining herbicides with manual, cultural and mechanical weed control methods. These methods of weed control also vary with the groundnut growing situation and the cropping systems. In this review, an effort was made to compile the information on feasible weed management practices for groundnut in India and the future strategies to very simple, cheap, effective, and environmentally safe integrated approaches.


Weed management Groundnut.


  1. Abraham, C. T. and Singh, S. P. (1981). Weed management studies in sorghum/legume intercropping systems. Abstracts of papers, Annual Conference of Indian Soc. Weed Sci.: 34.
  2. Agasimani, C. A., Katur, H. S., Hosamani, M. M. and Mannapur, B. C. (1978). Crop weed association in groundnut. All India Weed Science Conference held at Coimbatore, Hyderabad, February 3-4, 1978: 21.
  3. All India Coordinated Project on Oilseeds (1987). Annual progress report on kharif groundnut, 1986.
  4. All India Coordinated Project on Groundnut (1997). Annual progress report of kharif groundnut, 1997.
  5. All India Coordinated Project on Groundnut (2002). Annual progress report of kharif groundnut, 2002.
  6. All India Coordinated Project on Groundnut (2009). Annual progress report of kharif groundnut, 2009.
  7. Anonymous (1982). Annual Report 1981-82, National Agricultural Research Project, Tirupati centre, (NARPT), Andhra Pradesh.
  8. Belorkar, V. T., Chaudhary, B. T., Khakhre, M. S. and Deshmukh, R. G. (1995). Relative efficiency and economics of cultural, chemical and integrated methods of weed control in groundnut. P. K. V. Res. J., 19: 67-68.
  9. Bhan, V. M., Negi, P. S. and Singh, G. R. (1976). Effect of metoxuron on the control of phalaris minor in wheat and its residual effect on subsequent crops. Indian J. Weed Sci., 8: 70-73.
  10. Bhargava, A. K. and Sobti, A.K. (2000). Detection of Indian peanut clump virus in the weeds present in the infested fields of Arachis hypogaea. J. Mycology and Plant Pathology, 30: 114-115.
  11. Biradar, I. B. and Hosamani, M. M. (2000). Effect of soil solarization on weeds. Karnataka J. Agri. Sci., 13: 712-715.
  12. Brar, L. S., Gill, H. S. and Sidhu, H. S. (1980). Efficacy of different herbicides for weed control in rainfed groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Pesticides, 14: 24-27.
  13. Desai, S. A., Siddaramaiah, A. L. and Hegde, R. K. (1980). Three additional hosts to sclerotium rolfsii. Current Research, 9: 151-52.
  14. Devi Dayal (1990). Response of summer groundnut to mulching under varying irrigation regimes. Groundnut News, 1(2): 5.
  15. Devi Dayal, Naik, P. R., Dongre, B. N. and Reddy, P. S. (1994). Effect of row pattern and weed control method on yield and economics of rainfed groundnut. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 446-449.
  16. Devi Dayal, Ghosh, P. K. and Malavia, D. D. (1998). An overview on weed management research for groundnut. In: Proc. Symp. on Recent Advances on Weed Science held at Junagadh,Gujarat, 23-24, Dec. 1998.
  17. Devi Dayal and Ghosh, P. K. (1999). Recent advances in weed management for groundnut in India. Abs. Biennial Conference on weed control, B. H. U., Vanarasi, 5-7 Feb., 1999.
  18. Devi Dayal (2004). Weed management in groundnut. In; Groundnut Research in India by Basu, M. S. and Singh, N.B. PP. 248-259.
  19. Dhakar, P. M., Pawar, W. S., Jugele, A. N. (2000). Economics of weed control in groundnut. J. Soils and Crops, 10: 307-308.
  20. Diwakar, B. (1981). Weed control in groundnut– a review. Abs. Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science.
  21. Diwakar, P. G. and Ansari, A. A. (1995). Weed flora of Buldhana district of Maharashtra. J. Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 19: 607-612.
  22. Gajendra Giri (1998). Influence of gypsum application and weed control measures in groundnut in soil fertility and productivity of succeeding mustard. Ann. Agric. Res., 19: 104-106.
  23. Ghosh, P. K., Mandal, K. G. and Hati, K. M. (2000). Allelopathic effects of weeds on groundnut in India. Agricultural Review, 21: 66-69.
  24. Gill, B. S., Samra, J. S., Brar, H. S. and Mehra, S. P. (1986). Studies on the critical period of weed competition in groundnut. Journal of Research, Panjab Agricultural Univercity, 23: 394-397.
  25. Giri, A. N., Bhosle, R. H., Shelke, D. K. (1998). Weed management in cotton-groundnut sequence. Indian J. Agron., 43: 50-56.
  26. Girijesh, G. K. and Patil, V. C. (1989). Effect of weed control in groundnut and sunflower intercropping system with reference to nutrient uptake and oil yield. J. Oilseeds Res., 6: 334-340.
  27. Gnanamurthy, P. and Balasubramniam, P. (1998). Weed management practice and their influenced on weed growth and yield of groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 43: 122-125.
  28. Gowda, S. T. and Gowda, K. T. K. (1978). Efficient use of fertilizers in groundnut through chemical weed control. Agric. Res. J. Kerala, 16: 66-69.
  29. Hakansoon, S. (2003). Weeds and weed management on arable land- An ecological approach. In: first ed., CABI, Publishing, Oxon.
  30. Hu, W., Duan, S., Sui, Q. (1995). High yield technology for groundnut. Int. Arachis Newsletter, 15(suppl.): 1-22.
  31. Kalaiselvan, P., Manoharan, V. and Balasubramanian, T. N. (1994). Effect of different doses of herbicides on the control of groundnut weeds. Madras Agriculture J., 81: 628-30.
  32. Kennedy, F. J. S., Lourduraj, A. C. and Rajmanickam, K. (1992). Weeds as alternate hosts for groundnut leaf miner. Groundnut News, 4(2): 7.
  33. Krishna Gowda, K. T., Purushotham, S. and Krishnamurthy, K. (1977). Effect of weed free environment during specific growth periods in groundnut. Abs. Weed Science Conference and Workshop in India, PP. 61-66.
  34. Krishnamurthy, K., Raju, B., Reddy, V. C., Kenchaiah, K. and Rao, B. V. V. (ed.) (1981). Critical stage for weed competition in soybean, groundnut and maize. In: Proceedings of the Eighth Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, Bangalore, India, November 22 to 29. Volume 2: 123-127.
  35. Kulandaivelu, R. and Sankaran, S. (1985). Studies of the effect of herbicides on growth and yield of groundnut. J. Weed Sci., 17: 26-30.
  36. Maliwal, P. L. and Rathore, S. S. (1994). Weed management in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea)+sesame (Sesamun indicum) intercropping system. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 64: 394-396.
  37. Mishra, S. S., Nanda, S. S., Garnayak, L. M., Jena, S. N. (1991). Weed management in groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 36 (Suppl.): 306-307.
  38. Misra, A., Patro, G. K., Tosh, G. S. (1976). Integrated weed control in multiple cropping sequence in irrigated up land. Indian J. Weed Sci., 8: 44-52.
  39. Mohanti, S. K., Pani, S. K., Kar, M. and Baisakh, N. (1997). Effect of herbicides on increase in productivity of groundnut. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 67: 296-298.
  40. Mudalagiriyappa Nanjappa, H. V. and Ramchandrappa, B. K. (1999). Effect of soil solarization on weed growth and yield of kharif groundnut. Indian J. Agron, 44: 396-99.
  41. Murthy, B. G., Agasimani, C. A., Babalad, H. B. and Pratibha, N. C. (1994). Studies on integrated weed control in kharif groiundnut. Farming System, 10: 66-69.
  42. Naidu, L. G., Sankara Reddi, G. H. and Soundara Rajan, M. S. (1977). Crop weed competition studies in rainfed groundnut. In: Proc. Weed Science Conference held at Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, January 17-19, 1997, PP. 201.
  43. Naidu, L. G. (1978). Crop-weed competition studies in rainfed groundnut (Arachis hypogaea,Linn.). Thesis-Abstracts, 4: 90-91.
  44. Naidu, L. K. G., Reddy, G. H. S., Rajan, M. S. S. (1982). Nutrient uptake as influenced by crop weed competition in groundnut. Indian J. Weed Sci., 14: 137-140.
  45. Ossom, E. M., Pace, P. F., Rhykerd, R. L. and Rhykerd, C. L. (2001). Effect of mulch on weed infestation, soil temperature, nutrient concentration and tuber yield in Ipomoea bataus (L.) Lam. in Papua New Guinea. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 78: 144-151.
  46. Pandey, C. S. and Padhiar, R. G. (2000). Efficacy of different herbicides for weed control in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Indian Journal of Environment and Toxicology, 10: 8-10.
  47. Panwar, R. S., Malik, R. K. and Bhan, V. N. (1988). Chemical weed control in groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 33: 458-459.
  48. Patel, R. G., Patel, R. B., Patel, H. C. and Patel, T. D. (1988). Crop weed competition in summer groundnut under clay soils of south Gujarat. Gujarat Agricultural University Res. Journal, 14: 52-54.
  49. Patel, S. R. et al., (1997). J. Oilseeds Res., 14(1): 55-58.
  50. Patra, A. K. and Nayak, B. C. (2001). Integrated weed management in rainy season groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Indian J. Agri. Sci., 71: 378-380.
  51. Patro, G. K., Tosh, G. C. and Rao, K. G. (1981). Studies on relative efficiency of herbicides on rabi groundnut grown with varying spacing. Abs. Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science (Undated), PP. 25.
  52. Powles, S. B. et. al., 1997. Adv. Agron., 58: 57-87.
  53. Pradhan, S. C., Behera, B. K., Behera, D. and Mahapatra, M. (1995). Development and evaluation of a power tiller operated weeder for groundnut crop. Current Agric. Res., 8:128-130.
  54. Prasad, K. and Srivastava, V. C. (1991). Teletoxic effect of some weeds on germination and initial growth of groundnut. Indian J. Agric. Sci., 61: 493-94.
  55. Prasad, T. V. R., Narasimha, N., Dwarkanath, N. and Krishnamurthy, K. (1987). Efficacy of oxyfluorfen for weed control in irrigated groundnut. International Arachis Newsletter, 2: 9-11.
  56. Prusty, J. C., Behera, L. D., Parida, A. K. (1990). Weed control strategy in irrigated rabi groundnut. Orissa Journal of Agric. Res., 3: 99-103.
  57. Raghvani, B. R., Goyal, S. N. and Patel, J. C. (1984). Crop weed competition in rainfed groundnut. Indian J. of Weed Sci., 16: 234-237.
  58. Rajan, M. S. S., Naidu, L. G. K., Seshaiah, T. and Reddy, G. H. S. (1981). Nutrient requirement for rainfed and irrigated groundnut under different levels of weed management. Abs. Annual Conference of Indian Soc. Weed Sci., 1981, PP. 23-24.
  59. Rajan, M. S. S., Naidu, L. K. G., Sudhakaran, R. and Reddy, G. H. S. (1982). Weed management in groundnut a review. Research Bulletin, Marathwada Agricultural University, 6: 15-17.
  60. Rajendran, K. and Lourduraj, A. C. (1999). Weed management in groundnut a review. Agricultural Review, 20: 59-62.
  61. Rajendran, R. and Kempuchetty, N. (1999). Integrated weed management in direct sown semi dry rice based cropping system. Indian J. Agron., 44: 210-215.
  62. Ramachandra, V. and Gowda, M. C. (1998). Conservation of soil moisture influence by hand weeder in rainfed groundnut. Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences Bangalore, 27: 144-146.
  63. Ramakrishna, A. and Ong, C. K. (1988). Intern. Arachis Newsletter, 4(11): 15-16.
  64. Ramakrishna, A., Hong Milh Tam, Sush, P., Wani, T. R. A. N. H., Bi, N. H. and Long (2006). Effect of mulch on soil temperature, moisture, weed infestation and yield of groundnut in Northen Vietnam. Field Crop Research, 95(1): 15-125.
  65. Rao, A. N. and Shetty, S. V. R. (1981). Investigation on weed suppression ability of smoother cropping system in relation to canopy development and light interception. In: Proc. Eight Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference, PP. 357-364.
  66. Rao, A. N., Kondap, S. M. and Murty, Y. V. N. (1982). Weed spectrum and pod of groundnut as influenced by phosphorus levels and weed management. Abs. Papers, Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science, PP. 26.
  67. Rao, A. N. and Shetty, S. V. R. (1983). Some observations on the ecological approach for managing weeds in Indian semi arid tropical agro ecosystem. In: Proc. Ninth Conference of the Asian-Pacific Weed Science Society, Manila (Philippines), PP. 181-191.
  68. Rao, C. G. P. and Kumar, K. A. (1996). Weed flora of groundnut in Anantpur, Andhra Pradesh. World Weeds, 3: 29-32.
  69. Rao, J. V. S., Reddy, K. R. and Kumar, P. J. (1987). Phytosociological studies on weeds of groundnut in Chittoor district A. P. Indian J. Ecology, 14: 67-71.
  70. Rao, M. A., Reddy, M. G. R. K., Reddy, P. R., Rao, P. G. and Sudrahmanyan, K. (1985). Effect of herbicides on weed control and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.). Andhra Agricultural Journal, 32: 215-216.
  71. Rao, V. V., Reddy, V. M., Pedhadiya, M. D. and Pandya, S. M. (1989). Allopathic potential of two weeds on Rhizobium cultures from Arachis hypogea. Adv. Plant Sci., 2: 67-71.
  72. Ravichandran, V. K., Duria, R. and Venktakriashna, A. S. (1996). Weed management in sugarcane intercropping system. Madras Agri. J., 83: 7-9.
  73. Ray, S. and Patra, P. C, (1986). Effect of weed population dynamics affecting groundnut. Indian Phytopathology, 39: 485-488.
  74. Reddy, C. N., Reddy, N. V. and Devi, M. P. (1993). Proc. Intl. Conf. Integrated Weed Management for Sustainable Agriculture, India, 18-20 Nov. Vol. III, PP. 22.
  75. Reddy, P. M., Reddy, B. R. and Reddy, B. S. (1997). Weed management in groundnut Pigeonpea intercropping system. Ann. Agric. Res., 18: 1-4.
  76. Salvamini, S. and Sankaran, S. (1992). Effect of imazethapyr on weed control in irrigated groundnut. Madras Agric. J., 79: 188-93.
  77. Sawhney, J. S., Sidhu, M. S., Narang, R. S. and Kumar, K. (1989). Intercropping as a system to manage weeds. J. Res. Punjab Agric. University, 26: 563-568.
  78. Senthil Kumar, M. (2009). Effect of plant density and weed management practices on production potential of groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L.). Indian J. Agric. Res., 43(1): 57-60.
  79. Seshaiah, M. S., Soundra Rajan, M. S. Sankra Reddi, G. H. (1979). Weeds composition in irrigated groundnut as influenced by weed control treatment. Indian J. Botony, 2: 185-189.
  80. Shahoo, U. K. (1998). Phytosociological analysis of weeds in crop fields under double rotation terrace cultivation. Indian J. Weeds Sci., 30: 5-8.
  81. Shetty, S. V. R. and Roa, A. N. (1981). Weed management studies in sorghum/pigeon pea and pearl millet/groundnut intercropping systems- some observations. In: Proc. Intl. Workshop on Intercropping, Hyderabad, India, January 10-13, 1979, PP. 238-248.
  82. Shankra, S. Reddy, G. H., Yogesharwara Rao, Y. and Soundra Rajan, M. S. (1976). Weed control in rainfed groundnut Arachis hypogeae L. with use of herbicides. Indian J. Weed Sci., 8: 131-133.
  83. Singh, R. and Patel, C. S. (1992). Weed control in groundnut under high rainfall condition of meghalya. Indian J. Agron., 36 (supplement): 160-164.
  84. Singh, R. and Hajarika, U. K. (1996). Allopathic effects of Galinsoga parviflora Car. and Bidens pilosa L. on germination and seedling growth of soybean and groundnut. Allelopathy J., 3: 89-92.
  85. Singh, R., Hazarika, U. K., Munda, G. C. and Singh, R. (1996). Weed management in groundnut Archaic Hyopgea L. as influenced by seed rate and weed control methods. Indian. J. Agron., 41: 438-441.
  86. Singh, R. S., Achraya, D. and Singh, G. S. (1994). Weed control in summer groundnut to studies on pod yield its components and economics. Orrisa J. Agri. Res., 7, 24-30.
  87. Singh, V. K. and Bajpai, R. P. (1991). Studies on manual weed control in rainfed groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 36: 127-129.
  88. Sivannarayana, G. and Bhanumurthy, V. B. (1990). Methods and time of application of promising herbicides for control of purple nut sedge in groundnut. Indian J. Weed Sci., 2: 42-46.
  89. Subbaiah, H., Nanjappa, H. V. and Ramachandrappa, B. K. (1995a). Critical stages of crop weed competition under sole and intercropping system in groundnut. Mysore J. Agric. Sci. 29, 219-224.
  90. Subbaiah, H., Nanjappa, H. V. and Ramachandrappa, B. K. (1995b). Economics of chemical weed control under different cropping systems in rainfed groundnut. Mysore J. Agric. Sci. 29, 18-21.
  91. Sujith, G. M., Ramchandrappa, B. K. and Nanjappa, H. V. (2000). Effect of irrigation schedules and methods of herbicide application on weed growth, weed dry weight, weed control efficiency and pod yield of summer groundnut (Arachis hypogaea). Crop Res., 20: 279-286.
  92. Sukhadia, N. M., Ramani, B. B., Modhwadia, M. M. and Asodaria, K. B. (2000). Integrated weed management in groundnut wheat crop sequence. Indian J. Agron., 45: 253-256.
  93. Suresh, K. K. and Ali, A. M. (1985). Integrated weed management in groundnut based cropping systems. Abstract, Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science, PP. 64.
  94. Tewari, A. N., Singh, K. K., Sharma, J. K. and Tewari, U. S. (1989). Crop weed competition in groundnut+pigeon pea intercropping under rainfed conditions. Indian J. Agron. 34: 167-171.
  95. Tosh, G. C. and Misra, A. (1977). Effect of some pre sowing herbicides on weed control and yield of groundnut. Pesticides, 11: 51-53.
  96. Tosh, G. C. and Pattanaik, P. R. (1982). Comparative efficiency of some herbicides for weed control in groundnut. Abs. Annual Conference of Indian Soc. Weed Sci., 1982.
  97. Tripathy, S. K., Singh, S. S. and Ghosh, A. K. (1978). Response of groundnut to different weed control treatments and phosphate levels. Allahabad Farmer, 49: 101-104.
  98. Vairavan, K. and Sankaran, S. (1996). Efficiency of fluchloralin under different seeding and moisture regimes on yield and weed flora of groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 41:442-444.
  99. Venkatakrishna, A. S. and Balasubramanian, T. N. (1994). Phytosociological study on weeds in irrigated groundnut. Madras Agriculture J., 81:565-66.
  100. Verma, O. P. S. and Prakash, J. (1977). Evaluation of herbicides for weed control in groundnut. Abs. Weed Science Conference and Workshop in India, 1997, paper No. 59.
  101. Vijaykumar, B. (1991). Effect of weed control methods on yield and net monetary returns in pigeon pea groundnut-intercropping system. Ann. Agric. Res., 12: 431-433.
  102. Yadav. S. K., Singh, S. P. and Bhan, V. M. (1982). Effect of weed removal on pod yield of groundnut. Abs. Annual Conference of Indian Society of Weed Science (undated) PP. 15.
  103. Yaduraju, N. T., Kulshrestha, G. and Mani, V. S. (1980). Herbicide studies in groundnut. Indian J. Agron., 25: 447-52.
  104. Yaduraju, N. T. (1993). Solarization in weed management, In; Proc. Intl. Symp. on integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture, India Society of Weed Science, Hissar, India, 1: 46-347.

Global Footprints