BIOCHAR – A PROMISING SOIL ADDITIVE - A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC896 | Page : 134 - 139
Citation :- BIOCHAR – A PROMISING SOIL ADDITIVE - A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2011.(32):134 - 139
K. Coumaravel*, R.Santhi, V. Sanjiv Kumar and M.M. Mansour
Address : Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore - 641 003, India.

Abstract

Biochar produced from pyrolysis of plants stocks is a fine-grained charcoal high in organic carbon and largely resistant to decomposition. Biochar creates a recalcitrant soil carbon pool that is carbon-negative, serving as a net withdrawal of atmospheric carbon dioxide stored in highly recalcitrant soil carbon stocks. Biochar-amended soil reduces not only the fertilizer requirements, but also the climate and environmental impact of croplands. Also, it improves a host of soil physical properties. Biochar is a variable charge organic material that has the potential to increase cation exchange capacity and related soil properties. Application of biochar with inorganic fertilizers significantly increases the yields of a number of crops.

Keywords

Biochar Pyrolysis Biomass Feedstocks.

References

  1. Bélanger, N. I., Côté, B., Fyles, J.W., Chourchesne, F. and Hendershot,W. H., 2004 ‘Forest regrowth as the controlling factor of soil nutrient availability 75 years after fire in a deciduous forest of southern Quebec’, Plant Soil. 262 :363–372
  2. Briggs, C.M., Breiner, J., and Graham, R.C., 2005. Contributions of Pinus Ponderosa Charcoal to Soil Chemical and Physical Properties. The ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings (November 6-10, 2005), Salt Lake City, U.S.A.
  3. Brown, R., (2009) Biochar Production Technology. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology (Eds. Lehmann, J. & Joseph, S.), Earthscan.
  4. Chan.K.Y., Van Zwieten. L, Meszaros. I, Downie. A, Joseph. S. 2007. Agronomic values of green waste biochar as a soil amendment. Aust. J. Soil Res.45:629–634
  5. Chidumayo, E. 1994. Effects of wood carbonization on soil and initial development of seedlings in miombo woodland, Zambia. For. Ecol. Manage., 70:353–357.
  6. Doerr, S. H., Shakesby, R.A. and Walsh, R.P.D., 2000. Soil water repellency: its causes, characteristics and hydro-geomorphological significance. Earth Science Reviews. 51: 33-65.
  7. Downie, A. et. al. P., 2009. Physical properties of biochar. In: Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology (Eds. Lehmann, J. & Joseph, S.), Earthscan.
  8. Glaser B, Lehman J and Zech. W. 2002. Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review. Biology and Fertility of Soils.35, 219–230.
  9. Gundale, M.J., and DeLuca,T.H. 2006. Temperature and substrate influence the chemical properties of charcoal in the ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir ecosystem’, Forest Ecology and Management. 231, pp86–93
  10. Harder, B., 2006. Smouldered earth policy. Science .169:133.
  11. Iswaran, V., Jauhri, K.S. and Sen, A, 1980. Effect of charcoal, coal and peat on the yiled of moong, soybean and pea. Soil boil.Biochem. 12: 191-192.
  12. Keech, O., Carcaillet, C. and Nilsson, M. C., 2005. Adsorption of allelopathic compounds by wood–derived charcoal: The role of wood porosity’, Plant and Soil. 272 :291–300
  13. Kimetu, J.M., Lehmann, J., Ngoze, S. O., Mugendi, D. N., Kinyangi, J. M., Riha, S., Verchot, L., Recha, J. W., and Pell, A. N., 2008. Reversibility of soil productivity decline with organic matter of differing quality along a degradation gradient. Ecosystems. 11(5): 726-739.
  14. Kishimoto S, and Sugiura, G., 1985. Charcoal as a soil conditioner, in: Symposium on Forest Products Research, International Achievements for the Future 5 :12–23.
  15. Kolb, S.E., Fermanich, K.J. and Dornbush, M.E., 2009. Effect of Charcoal Quantity on Microbial Biomass and Activity in Temperate Soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 73(4): 1173-1181.
  16. Lehmann, J., 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 5 :381-387.
  17. Lehmann, J., Kern, D. C., Glaser, B., and Woods, W. I., 2003. Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin, Properties and Management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.
  18. Liang, B., Lehmann, J., Solomon, D., Kinyangi, J., Grossman, J., O’Neill, B., Skjemstad, J.O., Thies, J., Luizão, F.J., Petersen, J., and Neves, E.G., 2006. Black carbon increases cation exchange capacity in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal .70(5): 1719-1730.
  19. Marris, E., 2006. Putting the carbon back: Black is the new green. Nature. 442(7103): 624-626.
  20. Ogawa M , Yambe Y and Sugiura G., (1983) Effects of charcoal on the root nodule formation and VA mycorrhiza formation of soybean. In ‘The Third International Mycological Congress (IMC3) Abstracts’. Tokyo. p.578.
  21. Ogawa, M., (1994) Symbiosis of people and nature in the tropics. Farming Japan, 28: 10-34.
  22. Oguntunde, P.G., Fosu, M., Ajayi, A.E. and Van De Giesen, N.D., 2004. Effects of charcoal production on maize yield, chemical properties and texture of soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils .39(4): 295-299.
  23. Pietikäinen, J., Kiikkila, O. and Fritze, H. (2000) ‘Charcoal as a habitat for microbes and its effect on the microbial community of the underlying humus’, Oikos 89: 231–242
  24. Post, D.F., Fimbres, A., Matthias, A.D., Sano, E.E., Accioly, L., Batchily, A.K., and Ferreira, L.G., 2000. Predicting soil albedo from soil color and spectral reflectance data. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 64(3): 1027-1034.
  25. Renner, R., 2007. Rethinking biochar. Environmental Science and Technology. 41(17): 5932-5933.
  26. Rondon, M.A., Lehmann, J., Ramírez, J. and Hurtado, M., 2007. Biological nitrogen fixation by common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) increases with bio-char additions. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 43(6): 699-708.
  27. Saito, M., and Marumoto, T., 2002. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: the status quo in Japan and the future prospects. Plant and Soil. 244: 273–279.
  28. Sohi, S., Lopez-Capel, E., Krull, E., and Bol, R., 2009. Biochar, climate change and soil: a review to guide future research. CSIRO Land and Water Science Report.
  29. Steiner, C., 2004. Plant nitrogen uptake doubled in charcoal amended soils, Energy with Agricultural Carbon Utilization Symposium, Athens, Georgia, U.S.A.
  30. Steiner, C., Glaser, B., Teixeira, W. G., Lehmann, J., Blum, W. E. H., and Zech, W., 2008. Nitrogen retention and plant uptake on a highly weathered central Amazonian Ferralsol amended with compost and charcoal. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 171(6): 893-899.
  31. Yamato, M., Okimori, Y., Wibowo, I.F., Anshori, S. and Ogawa, M., 2006. Effects of the application of charred bark of Acacia mangium on the yield of maize, cowpea and peanut, and soil chemical properties in South Sumatra, Indonesia. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 52(4): 489-495.

Global Footprints