PERIPARTURIENT IMMUNOSUPPRESSION AND ROLE OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN COWS: A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC594 | Page : 307-314
Citation :- PERIPARTURIENT IMMUNOSUPPRESSION AND ROLE OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN COWS: A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2012.(33):307-314
Address : Dairy Cattle Physiology Division, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, India

Abstract

The immune system of dairy cows is suppressed around parturition and there is an increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. A balanced supply of micronutrients, such as vitamins A and E and the trace elements zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) is very important particularly during the late dry period and early stages of lactation as deficiency of these micronutrients have been associated with an increased incidence of diseases. These micronutrients are cellular antioxidants, preventing peroxidative damage, either in cell membranes (vitamins) or in the cytoplasm (trace elements), and are essential for a normal functioning of the immune system.

Keywords

Periparturient period Immunosuppression Micronutrients Dairy cows.

References

  1. Aggarwal, A., Mani, V., Kaur, H., Ashutosh and Kumar, P. (2008). Oxidative stress and role of antioxidants in relation to Body Condition Score in Transition Cows. Indian Dairyman, 60 (4): 52-58.
  2. Aggarwal, A. (2009). Vitamin E to bust heat stress in cows. Indian Dairyman 61 (6): 28-33.
  3. Agarwal, S. and Rao, A.V. (2000). Carotenoids and chronic diseases. Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions. 17: 189-210.
  4. Burton, J. L. and Erskine, R. J. (2003). Immunity and mastitis. Some new ideas for an old disease. The Vety. Clinics of North America Food and Anim. Practice, 19: 1 – 45.
  5. Chawla, R. and Harjit Kaur. (2005). Effect of supplemental vitamin E and b-carotene on cell-mediated immunity and mastitis in crossbred cows. Anim. Nutr. Feed Tech., 5: 73-84.
  6. Chew, B.P. (1987). Vitamin A and carotene on host defense. J. Dairy Sci., 70: 2732–2743.
  7. Chew, B.P. (1993). Role of carotenoids in the immune response. J. Dairy Sci., 76: 2804–2811.
  8. Colitti, M., Stradaioli, G. and Stefanon, B. (2002). Regulation of mRNA expression of phase I and phase II enzymes in blood following administration of tomato and grape extracts in sheep. Proceedings of the 1st European Symposium on Bioreactive Secondary plants Products in Veterinary Medicine, 32, Wien University of Veterinary Medicine.
  9. Colitti, M. and Stefanon, B. (2006). Effect of natural antioxidants on superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase mRNA expression in leukocytes from periparturient dairy cows. Vetery. Res. Communications. 30: 19-27.
  10. Cummings, B. A., Gould, D. H., Caldwell, D. R. and Hamar, D. W. (1995). Ruminal microbial alterations associated with sulfide generation in steers with dietary sulfate-induced polioencephalomalacia. American J. Veterinary Res., 56: 1390 – 1395.
  11. Dahlquist, S.P. and Chew, B.P. (1985). Effects of vitamin A and â-carotene on mastitis in dairy cows during the early dry period. J Dairy Sci., 68 (Suppl. 1): 191 (abstr.).
  12. Detilleux, J. C., Kehrli jr, M. E., Stabel, J. R., Freeman, A. E. and Kelley, D. H. (1995). Study of immunological dysfunction in periparturient Holstein cattle selected for high and average milk production. Vetery Immunology and Immunopathol., 44: 251 – 267.
  13. Erskine, R. J. and Bartlett, P. C. (1993). Serum concentration of copper, iron, and zinc during Escherichia Coli-induced mastitis. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 408 – 413.
  14. Fraker, P.J., Hildebrandt, K. and Lueck, R.W. (1984). Alteration of antibody-mediated responses of suckling mice to T- cell dependent and independent antigens by maternal marginal zinc deficiency: Restoration of responsivity by nutritional repletion. J. Nutri., 114: 170–179.
  15. Gengelbach, G.P., Ward, J.D., Spears, J.W. and Brown, T.T. (1997). Effects of copper deficiency and copper deficiency coupled with high dietary iron or molybdenum on phagocytic cell function and response of calves to respiratory disease challenge. J. Anim. Sci., 75: 1112–1118.
  16. Gerloff, B. F. (1992). Effect of selenium supplementation on dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci., 70: 3934 – 3940.
  17. Goff, J. P. and Stabel, J. R. (1990). Decreased plasma retinol, á-tocopherol, and zinc concentration during the periparturient period. Effect of milk fever. J. Dairy Sci., 73, 3195 – 3199.
  18. Gröhn, Y. T. and Rajala-Schultz, P. J. (2000). Epidemiology of reproductive performance in dairy cows. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 60: 605 – 614.
  19. Grummer, R. R. (1995). Impact of changes in organic nutrient metabolism on feeding the transition dairy cow. J. Anim. Sci., 73: 2820 – 2833.
  20. Harrison, J. H. and Conrad, H. R. (1984). Effect of selenium intake on selenium utilization by the nonlactating dairy cows. J.f Dairy Sci., 67: 219 – 223.
  21. Harmon, R.J. and Torre, P.M. (1994). Copper and zinc: do they influence mastitis? Pages 54-56 in Proc. National Mastitis Council. Orlando, FL.
  22. Hasselmann, L., Munchow, H., Menzke, V., Schneewei-S, W. and Ahrens, F. (2000). Influence of b-carotene supplementation on cell count of raw milk as well as on reproductive performance of dairy cows under practical conditions. Nutr. Abst. Rev., (B) 70(9): 708.
  23. Hogan, J.S., Weiss, W.P. and Smith, K.L. (1993). Role of vitamin E and selenium in host defense against mastitis. J. Dairy Sci., 76:2795–2803.
  24. Horst, R. D. (1986). Regulation of calcium and phosphorous homeostasis in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 69: 604 – 616.
  25. Ivancic Jr, J., and Weiss, W. P. (2001). Effect of dietary sulfur and selenium concentrations on selenium balance of lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 84: 225 – 232.
  26. Kehrli Jr, M. E., Burton, J. L., Nonnecke, B, J. and Lee, E. K. (1999). Effects of stress on leukocyte trafficking and immune responses: Implications for vaccination. Advances in Vety Medicine, 41: 61 – 81.
  27. Kimura, K., Goff, J. P., Kehrli Jr, M. E. and Harp, J. A. (1999). Phenotype analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 82, 315 – 319.
  28. Kincaid, R.L., Chew, B..P and Cronrath, J.D. (1997). Zinc oxide and amino acids as sources of dietary zinc for calves: Effects on uptake and immunity. J. Dairy Sci. 80: 1381–1388.
  29. Lindmark-Månsson, H., Svensson, U., Paulsson, M., Aldén, G., Frank, B., and Johnsson, G. (2000). Influence of milk components, somatic cells and supplemental zinc on milk processability. International Dairy J. 10: 423 – 433.
  30. Lu, Y. and Foo, L.Y. (2000). Antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of polyphenols from apple pomace. Food Chemistry 68: 31-85.
  31. Mallard, B.A., Dekkers, J.C., Ireland, J.M., Leslie, K.E., Sharif, S., Lacey Vankampen, C., Wacter, L. and Wilkie, B.N. (1998). Alteration in immune responsiveness during the peripartum period and its ramification on dairy cow and calf health. J Dairy Sci. 81:585–595.
  32. Meglia, G.E., Johannisson, A., Petersson, L. and Persson Waller, K. (2001). Changes in some blood micronutrients, leukocyte and neutrophil expression of adhesion molecules in periparturient dairy cows. Acta Vet Scand. 42:109– 120. doi: 10.1186/1751-0147-42-139.
  33. Michal, J.J., Heirman, L.R.; Wong, T.S., Chew, B.P., Frigg, M. and Voker, L. (1994). Modulatory effects of dietary â- carotene on blood and mammary leukocyte function in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 77: 1408–1421.
  34. Miller, G. Y., Bartlett, P. C., Erskine, R. J. and Smith, K. L. (1995). Factors affecting serum selenium and vitamin E concentrations in dairy cows. J. American Vety Medical Assoc., 206: 1369 – 1373.
  35. NRC (National Research Council). (2001). Nutrients Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 7th revised edition, National Academy Press, Washington.
  36. Oldham, E.R., Eberhart, R.J. and Muller, L.D. (1991). Effects of supplemental vitamin A or â-carotene during the dry period and early lactation on udder health. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3775–3781.
  37. Panda, N. and Harjit Kaur (2007). Feeding synthetic vitamin E or milk from vitamin E supplemented Murrah buffaloes on growth, immunity and mineral status of calves. Animal Nutr. Feed Tech., 7: 1-10.
  38. Paape, M., Mehrzad, J., Zhao, X., Detilleux, J. and Burvenich, C. (2002). Defense of the bovine mammary gland by polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes. J. Mammary Gland Bio. and Neoplasia, 7, 109 – 121.
  39. Persson Waller, K. (2000). Mammary gland immunology around parturition: Influence of stress, nutrition and genetics. Advances in Exp. Med. Bio., 48: 231 – 245.
  40. Politis, I., Hidiroglow, M., Batra, T.R., Gilmore, J.A., Gorewit, R.C. and Scherf, H. (1995). Effects of vitamin E on immune function. American J. Vety Res., 56: 179–184.
  41. Rode, L. M., McAllister, T. A., Cheng, K.J. (1990). Microbial degradation of vitamin A in rumen fluid from steers fed concentrate, hay or straw diets. Canadian J. Anim. Sci., 70: 227 – 233.
  42. Reddy, P. G., and Frey, R. A. (1990). Nutritional modulation of immunity in domestic food animals. Advances in Vet. Sci. and comparat. medicine 35: 255 – 281.
  43. Scaletti, R.W., Hamilton, C.H. and Harmon, R.J. (2002). Effect of copper source on resistance to coliform mastitis. J. Dairy Sci., 85 (Suppl. 1): 375.
  44. Shafer-Weaver, K. A., Corl, C. M., and Sordillo, L. M. (1999). Shift in bovine CD4+ subpopulations increase T-helper- 2 compared with T-helper-1 effector cells during the postpartum period. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 1696 – 1706.
  45. Sordillo, L. M., Shafer-Weaver, K. and DeRosa, D. (1997). Immunobiology of the mammary gland. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 1851 – 1865.
  46. Spears, J. W. (2000). Micronutrients and immune function in cattle. Proceeding of the Nutrition Society 59: 587 – 594.
  47. Tomlinson, D.J., Socha, M.T., Rapp, C.J. and Johnson, A.B. (2002). Summary of twelve trials evaluating the effect of feeding complexed zinc methionine on lactation performance of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 85 (suppl. 1): 106 (abstr.).
  48. Underwood, E. J., and Suttle, N. F. (1999). In: The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. Underwood E. J., & Suttle, N. F. (eds), CABI Publishing, New York.
  49. Van Kampen, C. and Mallard, B. A. (1997). Effects of peripartum stress and health on circulating bovine lymphocyte subsets. Vety. Immunol. Immunopathol. 59: 79 – 91.
  50. Waldron, M.R. (2007). Nutritional Strategies to Enhance Immunity during the Transition
  51. Period of Dairy Cows. Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium • Best Western Gateway Grand • Gainesville, FL.
  52. Weiss, W. P., Smith, K. L., Hogan, J. S., and Steiner, T. E. (1995). Effect of forage to concentrate ratio on disappearence of vitamin A and E during in vitro ruminal fermentation. J. Dairy Sci., 78: 1837 – 1842.
  53. Whitaker, D.A., Eayres, H.F., Aitchison, K. and Kelly, J.M. (1997). No effect of a dietary zinc proteinate on clinical mastitis, infection rate, recovery rate and somatic cell count in dairy cows. Veterinary J., 153: 197-204.
  54. Xin, Z., Waterman, D. F., Hemken, R. W., and Harmon, R. J. (1993). Copper status and requirement during the dry period and early lactation in multiparous Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 76: 2711 – 2716.

Global Footprints