EFFECT OF LEPTIN ON METABOLIC HORMONES, ENERGY METABOLITES, IMMUNITY AND REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS - A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC590 | Page : 273-282
Citation :- EFFECT OF LEPTIN ON METABOLIC HORMONES, ENERGY METABOLITES, IMMUNITY AND REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS - A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2012.(33):273-282
Pankaj Kumar Maurya*, A.K. Singh, B.K. Chaudhari, D. Kumar, R.K. Sharma1 and Ajay Kumar2 dr.pankajmaurya3003@gmail.com
Address : National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal-132 001, India

Abstract

Leptin is a 16 kDa protein hormone and it is synthesized primarily by white adipose tissue. It was discovered in 1994 and has been shown to be a potential regulator (inhibitor) of feed intake and could influence the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. Effects of leptin on the immune system such as enhanced cytokine production have also been documented. Leptin also involved in regulation of feeding behaviour, energy balance and fertility. The expression and secretion of leptin is highly correlated with body fat mass and adipocyte size. Plasma leptin positively correlated to glucose and insulin and negatively correlated to growth hormone, cortisol and NEFA levels. Cortisol and insulin are potent stimulators of leptin. Leptin circulates specifically bound to serum, which may regulate its half life and biological activity. Its peripheral effects include the regulation of insulin action secretion by pancreatic beta cells and its action, besides energy metabolism in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. Leptin is thought to be a metabolic signal that regulates effects of nutrition on reproductive functions. Leptin also plays a major role in haematopoiesis. There is growing interest in the role of leptin especially in the high-producing, early lactation dairy cow, as drastic changes in energy balance and endocrine physiology combined with immunosuppression and increases the incidence of reproductive and metabolic disorders.  In this review, various aspects of leptin like synthesis, structure and it’s role on metabolic hormone, energy metabolites, immunity and reproduction have been dealt with.

Keywords

a-tocopherol acetate Body Condition Score Energy Metabolites Growth hormone Leptin Transition period Zinc.

References

  1. Adam, C. L., Archer, Z. A. and Miller, D. W. (2003). Leptin actions on the reproductive neuroendocrine axis in sheep. Reproduction Suppl., 61: 283-297.
  2. Ahima, R.S. and Flier, J.S. (2003). Leptin. Annual Review of Physiology, 62: 413-437.
  3. Ahima, R.S., Dushay, J., Flier, S.N., Prabakaran, D. and Flier, J.S. (1997). Leptin accelerates the onset of puberty in normal female mice. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 99: 391-395.
  4. Amstalden, M., Garcia, M.R., Stanko, R.L., Nizielski, S.E., Morrison, C.D., Keisler, D.H. and Williams, G.L. (2002). Central infusion of recombinant ovine leptin normalizes plasma insulin and stimulates a novel hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone after short-term fasting in mature beef cows. Biol. Reprod., 66: 1555-1561.
  5. Amstalden, M., Zieba, D.A., Edwards, J.F., Harms, P.G., Welsh Jr., T.H., Stanko, R.L. and Williams, G.L. (2003). Leptin acts at the bovine adenohyopophysis to enhance basal and gonadotropin releasing hormone-mediated release of luteinizing hormone: differential effects are dependent upon nutritional history. Biol. Reprod., 69: 1539-1544.
  6. Barb, C.R., Barrett, J.B. and Kraeling, R.R. (2004). Role of leptin in modulating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the pig. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol., 26: 201-214.
  7. Bartha, T., Sayed-Ahmed, A. and Rudas, P. (2005). Expression of leptin and its receptors in various tissues of ruminants. Domest. Anim. Endocrin., 29: 193-202.
  8. Bauman, D.E. (2000). Regulation of nutrient partitioning during lactation: homeostasis and homeorhesis revisited. In Ruminant Physiology, Digestion, Metabolism, Growth and Reproduction. Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on Ruminant Physiology, pp 311–328. Ed. PB Cronje. New York: CABI Publishing.
  9. Beam, S.W. and Butler, W.R. (1999). Energy balance effects on follicular development and first ovulation. Reprod. Fertil Suppl., 54: 411-424.
  10. Bertolucci, C., Caola, G., Foa, A. and Piccione, G. (2005). Daily rhythms of serum leptin in ewes: effects of feeding, pregnancy and lactation. Chronobiol. Int., 22(5): 817-827.
  11. Block, S. S., Rhoads, R. P., Bauman, D. E., Ehrhardt, R. A., McGuire, M. A., Crooker, B. A., Griinari, J. M., Mackle, T. R., Weber, W. J., Van Amburgh, M. E. and Boisclair, Y. R. (2003). Demonstration of a role for insulin in the regulation of leptin in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy. Sci., 86: 3508-3515.
  12. Block, S.S., Butler, W.R., Ehrhardt, R.A., Bell, A.W., Van Amburgh, M.E. and Boisclair, Y.R. (2001). Decreased concentration of plasma leptin in periparturient dairy cows is caused by negative energy balance. J Endocrinol., 171: 339-348.
  13. Boden, G., Chen, X., Kolaczynski, J.W. and Polansky, M. (1997). Effects of prolonged hyperinsulinemia on serum leptin in normal human subjects. J.Clinical Investigation, 100: 1107-1113.
  14. Bruno, A., Conus, S., Schmid, I. and Simon, H. U. (2005). Apoptotic pathways are inhibited by leptin receptor activation in neutrophils. J Immunol., 174: 8090.
  15. Butler, W. R. and Smith, R. D. (1989). Interrelationships between energy balance and postpartum reproductive performance in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 767-783.
  16. Butler, W. R. (2000). Nutritional interactions with reproductive performance in dairy cattle. Anim. Reprod., 457: 1016.
  17. Carulli, L., Ferrari, S., Bertolini, M., Tagliafico, E. and Del Rio, G. (1999). Regulation of ob gene expression: evidence for epinephrine-induced suppression in human obesity. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 84: 3309-3312.
  18. Chandra, G. (2009). Antioxidative status of high body condition periparturient crossbred cows with and without supplementation of á-Tocopherol acetate during summer and winter seasons. M.V.Sc. Thesis, NDRI (deemed University), Karnal, India.
  19. Chehab, F.F., Lim, M.E. and Lu, R. (1996). Correction of the sterility defect in homozygous obese female mice by treatment with the human recombinant leptin. Nat. Genet., 12: 318- 320.
  20. Chilliard, Y., Delavaud, C. and Bonnet, M. (2005). Leptin expression in ruminants: nutritional and physiological regulations in relation with energy metabolism. Domest Anim Endocrinol., 29: 3-22.
  21. Clarke, I. J., Tilbrook, A., Turner, A. I., Doughton, B. W. and Goding, J. W. (2000). Sex, fat and the tilt of the earth: effects of sex and season on the feeding response to centrally administered leptin in sheep. Endocrinology, 142: 2725-2728.
  22. Diamond, F. B., Eichler, D. C., Duckett, G., Jorgensen, E. V., Shulman, D. and Root, A. W. (1997). Demonstration of a leptin binding factor in human serum. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 233: 818-822.
  23. Domecq, J. J., Skidmore, A. L., Lloyd, J. W. and Kaneene, J. B. (1997). Relationship between body condition scores and milk yield in a large dairy herd of high yielding Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 101-112.
  24. Ehrhardt. R.A., Slepetis, R.M., VanAmburgh, M.E., Siegal-Willot, J., Bell, A.W. and Boisclair, Y.R. (2000). Development of a specific RIA to measure physiological changes of circulating leptin in cattle and sheep. J. Endocrinology, 166: 519-528.
  25. El-Haschimi, K. and Lehnert, H. (2003). Leptin resistance - or why leptin fails to work in obesity. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes. 111: 2-7.
  26. Garcia, M. R., Amstalden, M., Williams, S. W., Stanko, R. L., Morrison, C. D. and Keisler, D. H. (2002). Serum leptin and its adipose gene expression during pubertal development, the estrous cycle, and different seasons in cattle. J. Anim. Sci., 80: 2158-2167.
  27. Gunduz, B. (2002). Daily rhythm in serum melatonin and leptin levels in the Syrian hamster. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 132: 3939-4021.
  28. Havel, P. J. (2004). Update on adipocyte hormones: regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate/ lipid metabolism. Diabetes. 53: 143-151.
  29. Hayirli, A. Grummer, R. R. Nordheim, E. V. and Crump, P. M. (2002). Animal and dietary factors affecting feed intake during the pre-fresh transition period in Holsteins. J. Dairy Sci., 85: 3430-3443.
  30. Henry, B.A., Goding, J.W., Alexander, W.S., Tilbrook, A.J., Canny, B.J., Dunshea, F., Rao, A., Mansell, A. and Clarke, I.J. (1999). Central administration of leptin to ovariectomized ewes inhibits food intake without affecting the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland: evidence for a dissociation of effects on appetite and neuroendocrine function. Endocrinology, 140: 1175-1182.
  31. Henry, B.A., Goding, J.W., Tilbrook, A.J., Dunshea, F.R. and Clarke, I.J. (2001). Intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin elevates the secretion of luteinising hormone without affecting food intake in long-term food-restricted sheep, but increases growth hormone irrespective of bodyweight. J. Endocrinol., 168: 67-77.
  32. Hill, R. A., Margetic, S., Pegg G. G. and Gazzola, C. (1998). Leptin: its pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 22: 765-770.
  33. Houseknecht, K. L., Mantzoros, C. S., Kuliawat, R., Hadro, E., Flier, J. S. and Kahn, B. B. (1996). Evidence for leptin binding to proteins in serum of rodents and humans: modulation with obesity. Diabetes. 45: 1638-1643.
  34. Houseknecht, K.L., Portocarrero, C.P., Ji, S., Lemenager, R. and Spurlock, M.E. (2000). Growth hormone regulates leptin gene expression in bovine adipose tissue: correlation with adipose IGF-1 expression. Journal of Endocrinology, 164: 51-57.
  35. Ingvartsen, K.L. and Andersen, J.B. (2000). Integration of metabolism and intake regulation: a review focusing on periparturient animals. J. Dairy Sci., 83: 1573-1597.
  36. Islami, D. and Bischof, P. (2003). Leptin in the placenta. In: Henson MC, Castracane VD (eds): Leptin and reproduction. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 201-220.
  37. Jolly, P. D., S. McDougall, L. A. Fitzpatrick, K. L. Macmillan, and K. W. Entwistle. (1995). Physiological effects of undernutrition on postpartum anoestrus in cows. J. Reprod Ferti Suppl., 49: 477-492.
  38. Jorritsma, R., Wensing, T., Kruip, T., Vos, P.L.A.M., Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M. (2003). Acute fasting in heifers as a model for assessing the relationship between plasma and follicular fluid and NEFA concentration. Theriogenology., 60: 151-161.
  39. Kadokawa, H. and Martin B. G. (2006). A new perspective on Management of reproduction in dairy cows: the need for detailed metabolic information, an improved selection index and extended lactation. J. Reprod. Dev., 52: 161-168.
  40. Kershaw, E. E. and Flier, J. S. (2004). Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 89: 2548- 2556.
  41. Klingenspor, M., Dickopp, A., Heldmaier, G. and Klaus, S. (1996). Short photoperiod reduces leptin gene expression in white and brown adipose tissue in Djungarian hamsters. FEBS Lett., 399: 290-294.
  42. Kobayashi, Y., Boyd, C. K., Bracken, C. J., Lamberson, W. R., Keisler, D. H. and Lucy, M. C. (1999). Reduced growth hormone receptor (GHR) messenger ribonucleic acid in liver of periparturient cattle is caused by a specific down- regulation of GHR 1A that is associated with decreased insulin-like growth factor I. Endocrinology, 140: 3947-3954. Kokkonen, T., Taponen, J., Alasuutari, S., Nousiainen, M., Anttila, T. and Syrjala-Qvist, L. (2002). Plasma leptin in transition dairy cows. Effects of body fatness, ambient temperature and dietary factors. In: Proc. British Society of Animal Science, York, UK, April 02. pp.92.
  43. Konigsson, K., Savoin, G., Govoni, N., Invernizzi, G., Prandi, A., Kindahl, H., Veronesi, M.C. (2008). Energy balance, Leptin, NEFA and IGF-1 plasma concentrations and resumption of post partum ovarian activity in Swedish red and white breed cows. Acta. Vet. Scand., 53 (3): 1186/1751.
  44. Lam, Q. L., Zheng, B. J., Jin, D. Y., Cao, X. and Lu, L. (2007). Leptin induces CD40 expression via the activation of Akt in murine dendritic cells. J Biol Chem., 282: 27587-97.
  45. Lam, Q.L., Liu, S., Cao, X. and Lu, L. (2006). Involvement of leptin signaling in the survival and maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol, 36: 3118.
  46. Liefers, S. C., Veerkamp, R. F., te Pas, M. F. W., Delavaud, C., Chilliard, Y. and Van der Lende, T. (2003). Leptin concentrations in relation to energy balance, milk yield, intake, live weight, and estrus in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 86(3): 799-807.
  47. Lord, G. M., Matarese, G., Howard, J. K., Baker, R.J., Bloom, S. R. and Lechler, R. I. (1998). Leptin modulates the T- cell immune response and reverses starvation-induced immunosuppression. Nature, 394: 897-900.
  48. Mattioli, B., Straface, E., Quaranta, M.G., Giordani, L., Viora, M. (2005). Leptin promotes differentiation and survival of human dendritic cells and licenses them for Th1 priming. J. Immunol., 174: 6820.
  49. Maurya, P. K. (2011) Leptin level in relation to immunity, energy metabolites and cellular adaptations during dry period and early lactation in crossbred cows. MVSc. Thesis, NDRI Deemed University, Karnal, Haryana, India.
  50. Mayne, C.S., McCoy, M.A., Lennox, S.D., Mackey, D.R., Verner, M., Catney, D.C., McCaughey, W.J., Wylie, A.R.G., Kennedy, B.W., and Gordon, F.J., (2002). Fertility of dairy cows in Northern Ireland. Vet. Rec., 150: 707-713.
  51. McGuire, M. A., Bauman, D. E., Dwyer, D.A. and Cohick, W.S. (1995). Nutritional modulation of the somatotropin/ insulin-like growth factor system: response to feed deprivation in lactating cows. J. Nutrition, 125: 493-502.
  52. McNamara, J.P. (1991). Regulation of adipose tissue metabolism in support of lactation. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 706-719.
  53. Meglia G.E., Johannisson, A., Petersson, L. and Waller, P. (2001). Changes in some blood micronutrients, leukocytes and neutrophil expression of adhesion molecules in periparturient dairy cows. Acta Vet. Scand., 42: 139-150.
  54. Miller, D. W., Findlay, P. A., Morrison, M. A., Raver, N. and Adam, C. L. (2002). Seasonal and dose-dependent effects of intracerebroventricular leptin on luteinizing hormone secretion and appetite in sheep. J. Endocrinol., 175: 393-404.
  55. Morrison, C.D., Daniel, J.A., Holmberg, B.J., Djiane, J., Raver, N., Gertler, A. and Keisler, D.H. (2001). Central infusion of leptin into well-fed and undernourished ewe lambs: effects on feed intake and serum concentrations of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone. J. Endocrinol., 168: 317-324.
  56. Mueller, W.M., Gregoire, F.M., Stanhope, K.L., Mobbs, C.V., Mizuno, T.M., Warden, C.H., Stern, J. S. and Havel, P. J. (1998). Evidence that glucose metabolism regulates leptin secretion from cultured rat adipocytes. Endocrinology, 139: 551-558.
  57. Mwaanga, E. S., and T. Janowski. (2000). Anoestrus in dairy cows: causes prevalence and clinical forms. Repr Dom Anim., 35: 193-200.
  58. Nagatani, S., Zeng, Y., Keisler, D. H., Foster, D. L. and Jaffe, C. A. (2000). Leptin regulates pulsatile luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion in the sheep. Endocrinology, 141: 3965-3975.
  59. Nordbladh, L. I. (2003). Postpartum Changes in Hormones and Metabolites During Early Lactation in Summer and Winter Calving Holstein Cows. Master’s of Science Thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh.
  60. Pullen, D.L., Palmquist, D.L. and Emery, R.S. (1989). Effect on days of lactation and methionine hydroxy analog on incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglycerides. J. Dairy Sci., 72: 49-58.
  61. Regnault, T., Oddy, H.V., Nancarrow, C., Sriskandarajah, N., and Scaramuzzi R.J. (2004). Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations. Reprod Biol Endocrinol., 2: 64.
  62. Sauerwein, H., Heintges, U., Hennies, M., Selhorst, T. and Daxenberger, A. (2004). Growth hormone induced alterations of leptin serum concentrations in dairy cows as measured by a novel enzyme immunoassay. Livest. Prod. Sci., 87: 189-195.
  63. Staples, C.R., Thatcher, W.W. and Clark, J.H. (1990). Relationship between ovarian activity and energy substrate postpartum period of high producing cows. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 473-482.
  64. Sullivan, S.D. and Meonter, S.M. (2004). Aminobutyric acid neurons integrate and rapidly transmit permissive and inhibitory metabolic cues to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. Endocrinology, 145: 1194-1202.
  65. Theilgaard, P., Friggens, N.C., Sloth, K.H. and Ingvartsen, K.L. (2002). The effect of breed, parity and body fatness on the lipolytic response of dairy cows. Anim. Sci., 75: 209-220.
  66. Thorn, S. R., Ehrhardt, R.A., Butler, W. R., Quirk, S. M. and Boisclair, Y. R. (2008). Insulin regulates hepatic leptin receptor expression in early lactating dairy cows. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol., 295: R1455– R1462.
  67. Underwood, J.P., Drackley, J.K., Dahl, G.E. and Achtung, T.L. (2003). Responses to epinephrine challenges in the peripartal Holstein cow fed two amounts of metabolizable protein in prepartum diets. J. Dairy Sci., 86: 106 (Abstract).
  68. Vernon, R. G. Denis, R. G. Sorensen, A. and Williams, G. (2002). Leptin and the adaptation of lactation in rodents and ruminants. Horm. Metab. Res., 34: 678-685.
  69. Villa-Godoy, A., Hughs, T.L., Emery, R.S., Chapin, L.T., Fogwell, R.L. (1990). Influence of energy balance in estrus and estrous cycles in Holstein heifers. J. Dairy Sci., 73: 2759-2765.
  70. Villalobos, D. B., Tornadú, I. G., Shroeder, G., Salado, E. E., Gagliostro, G., Delavaud, C. Chilliard, Y. and Lacau- Mengido, I. M. (2007). Effect of fat supplementation on leptin, insulin-like growth factor I, growth hormone, and insulin in cattle. The Canadian J. Veterinary Research, 71: 218-225.
  71. Waddell, B. J. and Smith, J. (2003). Leptin in rodent pregnancy. In: Henson MC, Castracane VD (eds): Leptin and reproduction. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 221-238.
  72. Waltner, S. S., McNamara, J. P. and Hillers, J. K. (1993). Relationships of body condition score to production variables in high producing Holstein dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci., 76: 3410-3419.
  73. Wellhoener, P., Fruehwald-Schultes, B., Kern, W., Dantz, D., Kerner, W., Born, J., Fehm, H. L. and Peters, A. (2000). Glucose metabolism rather than insulin is a main determinant of leptin secretion in humans. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 85: 1267-1271.
  74. Wildman, E. E., Jones, G.M., Wagner, P.E., Boman, R.L., Troutt, H.F. and Lesch, T.N. (1982). A dairy cow condition scoring system and its relationship to selected production characteristics. J. Dairy Sci., 65: 495-501.
  75. Yu,W.H., Kimura, M.,Walczewska, A., Karanth, S. and McCann, S.M. (1997). Role of leptin in hypothalamic-pituitary function. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94: 1023-1028.
  76. Zhao, J., T. H. Kunz, N. Tumba, L. C. Schulz, C. Li, M. Reeves, and E. P. Widmaier. (2003). Comparative Analysis of Expression and Secretion of Placental Leptin in Mammals. Am. J. Physiol., 285: R438-R446.
  77. Zieba, D. A., Amstalden, M. and Williams, G. L. (2005). Regulatory role of leptin in reproduction and metabolism: a comparative review. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. 28: 166-185.
  78. Zieba, D. A., Klocek, B., Williams, G. L., Romanowicz, K., Boliglowa, L. and Wozniak, M. (2007). In vitro evidence that leptin suppresses melatonin secretion during long days and stimulates its secretion during short days in seasonal breeding ewes. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol., 33: 358-365.

Global Footprints