Appreciable efforts have been made to collect, evaluate and utilize germplasm for genetic improvement of rice. In this context, Indian rice germplasm collection, from primary as well as secondary diversity, is continuously providing genetic resources for a wide range of traits in the breeding programmes in India as well as other Asian rice growing countries. The contribution of Indian rice genetic resources to world rice improvement particularly for yield, disease and insect pest resistance, tolerance to stresses due to drought, flood, submergence, cold, salt, alkali etc. is discussed in detail. The need for cooperation and exchange of genetic resources between nations for the benefit of mankind is also highlighted.