CO-FRIENDLY UTILISATION OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT IN AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC4268 | Page : 16 - 30
Citation :- CO-FRIENDLY UTILISATION OF DISTILLERY EFFLUENT IN AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2003.(24):16 - 30
M. Baskar, C. Kayalvizhi and M. Subash Chandra Bose
Address : Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry (EID Parry Project) ~.D. Agricultural College and Research Institute (TNAU) , Trichy - 9, India

Abstract

Distillery effluent, a waste water of distillery industry is of purely plant origin and contains large quantities of soluble organic matter and plant nutrients. It does not contain any toxic elements/compounds. The only problem with distillery effluent is excessive Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and electrical conductivity. These problems could be overcome either by the application of distillery effluent after proper dilution (1:10 to 1:50) with irrigation water or by pre-plant application (40 to 60 days before planting) to give sufficient time for the natural oxidation of organic matter. Application of distillery spent wash/effluent significantly increased the EC, organic carbon, available N, P, K, Ca, Mg and micronutrient status of the soil. Distillery effluent application significantly increased the yield of crops viz., sorghum, wheat, maize, sugarcane, cotton, groundnut, sunflower, soybean, sugarbeet, potatoes and other vegetables, forage crops and tree crops, but had adverse effect on legumes and no effect on rice. The untreated distillery spent wash is acidic in nature (pH- 3.5 – 4.0) which could be effectively used for the reclamation of non-saline sodic soil. The technology of using distillery effluent for composting of pressmud, pressmud along with sugarcane trash and coir waste, pressmud plus bagasse ash and city garbage have been successfully tested. Thus utilisation of distillery effluents in agriculture would save costs on fertilisers and facilitate reduction in pollution load on aquatic eco-system.

Keywords

References

  1. Agarval, M.L. and Dua, S.P. (1976). Nat. Sem. Treatment and Disposal of Effluents from Sugar and Distillery Industry.
  2. .BangaIore. Distillery Sec. 15-58.
  3. Ajamal, M. and Khan, A.V. (1988). Environ: PoUut 30: 135.
  4. Anonymous (1986). Exp. Agro-Ind. "Obispo colombres" (TiJcuman) 28: 152 (Spanish).
  5. Anonymous (19~3). Final Report submitted by Department of Environmental Sciences. Tamil Nadu Agricultural
  6. University, Coimbatore.
  7. 28 AGRICULTURAL REVIEWS
  8. Baskar, M. et aL (2001). In: Proc. Nat. Sem. Use of Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture.
  9. Feb. 5'\2001. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:76.
  10. Bertranou, AV. eta/. (1987). Wat. Sci. Tech., 19: 1243-1246.
  11. Blackwell, B.R. eta/. (1979). TAPPI, 62: 33-37.
  12. Booth, R.J. and Ughtfot, C.J. (1990). Agric. Water Mgmt. , 17: 49-58.
  13. Bouwar, H.and Choney, R.L. (1974). Adv. Agron., 26: 133-176.
  14. Brinkman, R.T. and Sing, K.(1984). Ecology and Management of Problem Soil of Asia. Food and Fertil. Tool. Centre
  15. Series. No.27 Taiwan, China.
  16. Cepro, G.S. and Machado, AJ. (1987). CentroAgric., 14(4): 76-80. (Spanish)
  17. Chang, S.J. and Li, S.W. (1988). Ann. Rpt. Taiwan Sugar Res.lnst., 11-12. .
  18. Chapman, L.S. (1995). Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations Queensland, Australia. 1-14.
  19. Chapman, L.S. et a/. (1994). Bureau of Sugar Experiment Stations Queensland, Australia, 1-14
  20. Chapman, L.S. etaL (1995). Proc. Australian Society of Sugateane Technologists, 199-206.
  21. Chares, S. (1985). Sugarcane, 1987. 1: 20.
  22. Chauhan, A (1991).lndianJ. Environ. Hlth., 33: 203-207.
  23. Devarajan, L. and Oblisami, G. (1995). MadrasAgric. J., 82: 397~399.
  24. Devarajan, L. and Oblisami, G. (1994). South Indian Hart., 42: 324-326. .
  25. Devarajan, L. et a/: (1993). Final Report- 1990-1993.Department of Environmental Sciences, TNAU, Coimbatore.
  26. Devarajan, L. et aL(1996a). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  27. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:80-88. .
  28. Devarajan, L. et a/. (1996b). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  29. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:89-96. .
  30. Devarajan, L. et aL (1996c). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  31. 29th October, 1996.AC & R1, Trichy. pp:171-175.
  32. Dhar, N.R. (1939). J.lndian Chern. Soc., 2: 105-11I.
  33. Dhar, N.R. and Mukharji, SK (1938a). Proc. Natn. Aco. Sci. India, 6a: 297-303.
  34. Dhar, N.R. and Mukharji, SK (1938b). Prog. Sug. Tech. Assoc. India, 5: 15-24.
  35. Dubey, D.O. et aL (2000). Proc. Int. Conf. Managing Natural Resource for Sustainable Agric. Production in the 21Century.
  36. 2: 556-558.
  37. Ghugare, R.v. and Magar, S.S. (1995). Bhartiya - Sugar; 22: 97c98.
  38. . Gonzales, MY. and Tianco,AP. (1982). In: Proc. 29th Annual Convention of Sugar Tech. Assoc. Ag., Philipines,
  39. 467-490.
  40. Gopal, H. et a/. (2001). In : Proc. Nat. Sem. Use of Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture.
  41. Feb. 5th , 2001. AC & R1, Trichy. pp:75. .
  42. Gurusamy, R. (1986). Pollution Control Hand Book. pp: 203-212.
  43. Hari, O.M. etaL (1994). J. Environ. BioL, 15: 171-175.
  44. Jadhav, H.D. and Savant, NK (1975).lndianJ. Agric. Chern., 8: 73.
  45. Joshi, H.C. (1990). In: Proc. Nat. Sem. Management of Fisheries in Inland Open Water System$ of India, Barrackpore,
  46. W. Bengal, India, Dec, 1998.·PP: 23~30. .
  47. Joshi, H.C. etaL (1994). AsiaPacilicJ. Environ. Development, 1: 92-103.
  48. Joshi, H.C. et a/. (1996). In : Pro. Nat. Symp.Use of-Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th & 29th
  49. October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:97-107.
  50. Juwarkar, A et a/. (1990). Environ. Monitoring Assessment, 15: 200-210.
  51. Juwarkar, A. eta/. (1992). In: Fertilizers, Organic Manure, Recyclable Wastes and Biofertilizers. (Tandon, H.L.S. ed.)
  52. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organization, New Delhi, 72-90. .
  53. Karivaratharaju (1996). Proc. Nat. Symp.Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th & 29th
  54. October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp: 8-13.
  55. Kathiresan, G. etaL (2001). In: Proc. Nat. Sem. Use of Poor Quality Water and.Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture.
  56. Feb. 5th,2001. AC & R1, Trichy. pp:80.
  57. Kaushik, eta/. (1996). Water Air Soi1PoUn., 137: 39-46.
  58. Kayalvizhi, C. et a/. (2000). SISSTA, 25: 65-70.
  59. Kayalvizhi, C: et a/. (2001). In: Proc. Nat. Sem. Use of Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture.
  60. Feb. 5th,2001. AC & R1, Trichy. pp:75.
  61. Kulkarni, AD. et aL (1987). Bhartiya Sug., 12: 17-20.
  62. Lakshmanan, A. and Gopal, N.O. (1996). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes iri.
  63. Agriculture. 28th & 29th October,1996,AC & R1,Trichy. pp: 51-57.
  64. Vol. 24, No. 1,2003 29
  65. Madrod, P.v. etai. (1986). Sugarcane, 2: 23.
  66. Manavalan; R. and Srinivasan, G. (1996). In: Proc. Nat. Symp.Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture.
  67. 28th & 29th October, 1996. AC & RI,Trichy. pp:195~196.
  68. Manickam, T.S. (1996). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th & 29th
  69. October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:14-22.
  70. Mattiazo, M.E and Ada Gloria, N. (1985). STAB( Portugese), 4: 38-40.
  71. Mena, M.A. eta/. (1986). Cien. Agric., 29: 122-127.
  72. Mohan Rao, G. (1996). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th & 29th
  73. October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:162-164.
  74. Mohan Singh, M.P. etal (1993). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Improvement in Sugarcane Quality for Increasing Sugar
  75. Production. Indian InstitUte of Sugarcane Research, Luclmow.
  76. Mukherjee, U. and Sahai, R. (1988). Act. Botanica Indica., 14: 21-25.
  77. Nagappan, M. et al. (1996a). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  78. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:62-65.
  79. Nagappan, M. et ai. (1996b). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  80. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:66-70. .
  81. Nagappan, M. et al (1996c). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  82. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp: 176-179.
  83. Niemelae, S.1. and Vaeaetanen, P. (1982). Appl Environ. Microbiol, 44: 264--269.
  84. Pandey, D.K. and Soni, P. (1994). Indian J. Forestry, 17: 35-40.
  85. Pandey, D.K. et al (1994). Adv. Pl Sci. Res., 2: 62-68.
  86. Pathak, H. etal (1998) J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 46: 155-i57.
  87. PatH, G.D. and Shinde, B.N. (1995). J. Indian Soc.Soil Sci., 43: 700-02.
  88. Pawar, R.B. (1984). M.Sc.Thesis, MPAU, Rahuri. .
  89. Perez-Zamora, F. et al (1990). Revista Industria/y Agricola de Tucuman, 67: 79-89
  90. PUjar, S. and Manjunathaiah, H.M. (1996). In : Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in
  91. Agriculture. 28th & 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:71-79.
  92. Rajannan, G. et al. (1996). In : Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  93. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:180-187.
  94. Rajukkannu, K. and Manickam, T.S. (1996). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in
  95. Agriculture. 28th & 29th October, 1996.. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:23-29.
  96. Rajukkannu, K. et al (1996a). In: Proc. ~at. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  97. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Ttichy. pp:30-39. .
  98. Rajukkannu, K. et al (1996b). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  99. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy.pp:40-45. .
  100. Rajukkannu, K. (2001). In: Proc. Nat. Sem. ·Use of Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture.
  101. Feb. 5th , 2001. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:39-49.
  102. Ramadurai, R. et ai. (1996). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugar Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th &
  103. 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:1l5-1l8.
  104. Ramalingam, P.K. et al (1996). In: Proc. Nat. Symp. Use of Distillery and Sugat Industry Wastes in Agriculture. 28th
  105. & 29th October, 1996. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:1l3-1l4.
  106. Ramaswami, P.P. (1999). J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 47: 661-665.
  107. Rani, R. and Shrlvastava, M.M. (1990). Int. J. Ecology Environ. Sci., 16: 125-132.
  108. Rani, R. and Shrivastava, M.M. (1991). Advances in Himalayan Ecology - Recent Researches in Ecology,Environment
  109. & Pollution, 6: 131-139.
  110. Ravichandran, V. (1997). In: Proc. Recycling of Biomass and Industrial By-products of Sugarcane. pp: 33-38.
  111. Recault, Y. (1990). Wat. Sci. Tech., 22: 361-372.
  112. Sahai, R. and Neelam. (1987). Indian J. Ecology, 14: 21-25.
  113. Samuel, G. (1986). Proc. Inter-Amen. Sugarcane Seminar. pp: 245 - 252.
  114. Scalopi, E.J. et a/. (1989). In: 2nd Pan - American ICID Regional Conference, North Carolina. pp: 195-207.
  115. Scandalians, J. et aJ. (1987). Revista Industrial Agricola de Tucuman., 64: 1-44.
  116. Sengik, E. and Kiel, J.C. (1995). Revista Srasi/eira deCiencia do solo, 19: 321-326.
  117. Sharma, b.p. et a/. (1981). Curro Agric., 5: 48-53.
  118. Sharma, a.p. (2001). In: Proc. Nat. $em. Use of Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture.
  119. Feb. 5th , 2001. AC & RI, Trichy. pp: 50-59.
  120. Singh, R. eta/. (1980). J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci.; 28: 38-41.
  121. 30 AGRICULTURAL REVIEWS
  122. Somashekar, P.K. et aJ. (1984). Indian J. Environ. Hlth., 26: 36 - 146.
  123. Sweeney, D.W. and Graetzm, D.A. (1991). Agric. Ecosystems Environ., 33~ 341-351.
  124. Thiyagarajan, T.M. (2001). In: Proc. Nat. Sem. Use of Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture.
  125. Feb. 5th , 2001, AC & RI, Trlchy. pp:1-19.
  126. Usher, J.E and Wellington, J.P. (1979). Proc. ABBCT, 1: 143.
  127. Valliappan, K. (1999). Ph.D. Thesis submitted to TNAU. Coimbatore.
  128. VaUiappan, K. etaJ. (2001). In: Proc. Nat. Sem. Use of Poor Quality Water and Sugar Industrial Effluents in Agriculture. Feb. 5th, 2001. AC & RI, Trichy. pp:73.
  129. Vierira, D.B. (1982). Sacchatum APe, Sao Paulo, 5: 21.26.
  130. Vinten, A.J.A. etaJ.(1983). SoUSci. Soc. AmJ., 47: 408 -412.
  131. Zalawadia, N.M. and Raman. S. (1994). J. Indian Soc. Soil Sci., 42: 575-9.

Global Footprints