VEGETATIVE GROWTH RESTRICTION IN POME AND STONE FRUITS - A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC2084 | Page : 13 - 23
Citation :- VEGETATIVE GROWTH RESTRICTION IN POME AND STONE FRUITS - A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2009.(30):13 - 23
Sanjeev Sharma, A.S. Rehalia and S.D. Sharma
Address : Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan-173230 (H.P.), India

Abstract

The balance between vegetative and reproductive growth in temperate fruits is associated
with improved production efficiency and fruit quality. Horticultural approaches have great
potential to regulate the tree size. Among these approaches, rootstocks have provided apple
growers with trees of reduced stature suited to a wide range of planting densities, but poor
anchorage and disease susceptibility of dwarfing rootstocks are major concern for their
exploitation to control growth in temperate fruits. The lack of suitable dwarfing rootstocks
compatible with peach, pear, plum, apricot, and cherry have further added to the problem.
Pruning has proved efficient method of growth control. Judicious pruning coupled with branch
orientation offers a much better approach to growth control in many temperate fruit trees. It
is possible that significant control of fruit tree growth could be obtained by improved
management of fertilizers in orchards, including timing of fertilizer application. Use of plant
growth regulators continue to offer the most efficient and cost effective technique for regulating
shoot growth and controlling tree size.

Keywords

References

  1. Atkinson, D. (1974). Plant and Soil, 40: 333-342.
  2. Atkinson, D. (1977). Plant and Soil, 49: 459-471.
  3. Autio, W.R. and Greene D.W. (1994). J. Hort. Sci., 69: 653-664.
  4. Autio, W.R., et al (1990). HortSci., 25: 1219-1221.
  5. Avery, D.J. (1970). New Phytol., 69: 1930.
  6. Avidan, B. and Erez A. (1995). Plant Growth Regul., 17: 73-80.
  7. Barden,J.A., et al (1989). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 114: 184-186.
  8. Barritt, B.H. (1992). Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, Wash.
  9. Batjer, L.P., M.W.Williams and G.C. Martin. (1963).Proc. Wash. State Hort. Soc., 59: 107.
  10. Blanco, A. (1988). J. Hort. Sci., 63: 201207.
  11. Bukovac, M.J. (1981). In: Tukey R.B. and Williams M.W. (eds.). Proc. Tree Fruit Growth Regulators and Chemical
  12. Thinning. Wash. State Coop. Ext. Ser., Pullman, WA.
  13. Byers, R.E. (1993). HortSci., 28: 1103-1105.
  14. Byers, R.E. (2000). Proc. 27 th Plant Growth Regul. Soc. Amer. pp. 187-195.
  15. Byers, R.E. and Barden J.A. (1976). HortSci., 11: 506-507.
  16. Byers, R.E. and Emerson F.H. (1969). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 94: 641-645.
  17. Byers, R.E. and Yoder K.S. (1999). HortSci., 34: 1205-1209.
  18. Chalmers, D.J., et al (1981). J.Amer.Soc.Hort. Sci., 106: 307-312.
  19. Choi, C. and Andersen R.L. (2001). J. Amer. Pomol. Soc., 55: 114-119.
  20. Craighton, S. M., et al (1990). Plant Growth Regul., 9: 27-35.
  21. Curry, E.A. and Williams M.W. (1986). Acta Hort., 179: 743-753.
  22. Cutting, J.G.M. and Lyne M.C. (1993). J. Hort. Sci., 68: 619-626.
  23. Dann, I.R., et al (1990). Scientia Hort., 43: 37-45.
  24. Davis, T.D. and Curry E.A. (1991). Critical Rev. Plant Sci., 10(2): 151-188.
  25. DeJong, T.M., et al (1992). Acta Hort., 322: 99-106.
  26. Edgerton, L.J. (1986). Acta Hort., 179: 467.
  27. Edgerton, L.J. and Blanpied G.D. (1968). Nature, 219: 1064-1065.
  28. Vol. 30, No. 1, 2009 21
  29. Elfving, D.C. (1990). HortSci., 25: 908-910.
  30. Elfving, D.C. and Cline R.A. (1990). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 115: 212-218.
  31. Elfving, D.C. and Cline R.A. (1993). HortSci., 28: 1011-1014.
  32. Elfving, D.C. and Forshey C.G. (1976). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 101: 290-293.
  33. Elfving, D.C., et al (1996). J. Tree Fruit Prod., 1: 113.
  34. ElKhoreiby, A.M., et al (1990). HortSci., 25: 310-312.
  35. Embree, C.G., et al (1987). HortSci., 22: 55-56.
  36. Estabrooks, E.N. (1993). Can. J. Plant Sci., 73: 1127-1135.
  37. Evans, J.R., et al (1999). HortSci., 34: 1200-1201.
  38. Facteau, T.J. and Chestnut N.E. (1991). HortSci., 26: 276-278.
  39. Fallahi, E. and Mohan S. K. (2000). HortTechnology, 10: 589-592.
  40. Faust, M. (1989). Physiology of Temperate zone Fruit Trees. Wiley, New York, NY.
  41. Fernandez, R..T., et al (1997). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 122: 14-19.
  42. Ferree, D.C. (1989). HortSci., 24: 62-65.
  43. Ferree, D.C. (1992). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 117: 198-202.
  44. Ferree, D.C. (1994). HortSci., 29: 1004-1007.
  45. Ferree, D.C. and Carlson R.F. (1987). In: Rom. Rootstocks for fruit crops. R.C. and Carlson R.F. (eds.). Wiley, New York.
  46. Ferree, D.C. and Knee M. (1997). HortSci., 32: 645-648.
  47. Ferree, D.C. and Lakso A.N. (1979). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 104: 736-739.
  48. Ferree, D.C. and Rhodus W.T. (1993). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 118: 707-713.
  49. Flore, J.A. (1992). Acta Hort., 322: 257-264.
  50. Forshey, C.G. and Elfving D.C. (1989). Hort. Rev., 11: 229-287.
  51. Forshey, C.G., et al (1992). American Society Horticultural Science, Alexandria, VA.
  52. Geisler, D. and Ferree D.C. (1984). Hort. Rev., 6: 155-188.
  53. Ghrab, M., et al (1998). Acta Hort., 465: 601-608.
  54. Reischel, G. E. (1997). J Agric. Res., 27: 45-52.
  55. Greene, D.W. (1986). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 111: 328-332.
  56. Greene, D.W. (1991). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 116: 807-812.
  57. Greene, D. W. and Lord W.J. (1978). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 103: 208 -210.
  58. Greene, D. W. and Lord W.J. (1983). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 108: 590-595.
  59. Greene, D.W. and Lord W.J. (1986). Fruit Notes, 51(2): 15.
  60. Guimond, C.M., et al (1998). HortSci., 33: 647-649.
  61. Hamzakheyl, N., et al (1976). HortSci., 11: 393-395.
  62. Havis, L. (1938). et al Ecology 19: 454-462.
  63. Hayden R.A. and Emerson F.H. (1976). Amer. Fruit Grower, 96(11): 11-12.
  64. Hennerty, M.J. and Forshey C.G. (1971). J. Hort. Sci., 46: 153-161.
  65. Hirst, P.M. and Ferree D.C. (1996). Fruit Var. J., 50: 25-34.
  66. Hoying, S.A. and Robinson T.L. T.L. (1992). Acta Hort., 322: 167-172.
  67. Hugard, J. (1980). Acta Hortic., 114: 300-308.
  68. Johnson,R.S., et al (1992).J.Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 117: 881-886.
  69. Johnson, R.S. and Handley D.F. (2000). HortSci., 35: 1048-1050.
  70. Kaini, B.R., et al (1984). J. Hort. Sci., 59: 141-149.
  71. Kappel, F. and Bouthillier M. (1995). Can. J. Plant Sci., 75: 491-496.
  72. Kappel, F., et al (1997). HortSci., 32: 1034-1036.
  73. Kato, T. and H. Ito. (1962). Tohoku J. Agr. Res., 13: 121.
  74. Kikuchi, T. et al (1989). J. Japan. Soc. Hort. Sci., 58: 491-497.
  75. Layne, R.E.C. (1987). In: (eds.). Rootstocks for Fruit Crops. Rom R.C. and Carlson R.F. Wiley, New York.
  76. Layne, R.E.C. (1994). HortSci., 29: 167-171.
  77. Layne, R.E.C., et al (1976). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 101: 568-572.
  78. Lehman, L.J., et al (1990). HortSci., 25: 429-430.
  79. 22 AGRICUTURAL REVIEWS
  80. Leuty, S.J. and Pree D.J. (1980). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 105: 702-705.
  81. Lombard, P.B. and Westwood M.N. (1987). In: Rootstocks for Fruit Crops. Rom R.C. and Carlson R.F. (eds.). Wiley,
  82. New York.
  83. Long, L.E. (1999). N.Y Fruit Quart., 6(4): 1013.
  84. Looney, N.E. (1983). In: L.G. Nickell (ed.). Plant Growth Regulating Chemicals, Vol. I, CRC, Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  85. Luckwill, L.C. (1970). In: Physiology of Tree Fruit Crops, Luckwill L.C. and Cutting C.V. (eds.). Academic Press, London.
  86. Marini, R.P. (1985). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 110: 133-139.
  87. Marini, R.P. and Barden J.A. (1982). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 107: 34-39.
  88. Marini, R.P. and Barden J.A. (1987). Hort. Rev., 9: 351-375.
  89. Marini, R.P., et al (1993). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 118: 446-449.
  90. Mika, A. (1986). Hort. Rev., 8: 337-378.
  91. Mika, A. and Piatkowski M. (1989). Acta Hort., 243: 95-102.
  92. Mika, A., et al (1983). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 108: 655-660.
  93. Miller, S.S. (1982). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 107: 975-978.
  94. Miller, S.S. (1988). Hort Rev., 10: 309-401.
  95. Miller, S.S. (1995). HortSci., 30: 981-984.
  96. Miller, S. S. (2002). J. Tree Fruit Produ., 3(1): 11-28.
  97. Miller, S.S. and Byers R.E. (2000). HortTechnology, 10: 757-765.
  98. Mitchell, P.D., et al (1989). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 114: 15-19.
  99. Mullins, M.G. (1965). Ann. Bot., 29: 73-78.
  100. Mullins, M.G. and Rogers W.S. (1971). J.Hort. Sci., 46: 313-321.
  101. Myers, S.C. (1990). Compact Fruit Tree, 23: 93-100.
  102. Myers, S.C. and Ferree D.C. (1983). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 108: 634-638.
  103. Myers, S. C. and Savelle A.T. (1996). In: Maib K. M. (ed.) Tree Fruit Physiology: Growth and Development. Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, WA.
  104. Perry, R., et al (1996). Compact Fruit Tree, 29: 37-56.
  105. Proebsting, E.L. Jr. and Mills H.H. (1976). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 101: 175-179.
  106. Proebsting, E.L., (1989). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 114: 368-372.
  107. Rademacher, W. (1993). Acta Hort., 329: 31-34.
  108. Rademacher, W. (2000). Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol., 51: 501-531.
  109. Reighard, G.L. (1997). Acta Hort., 465: 567-572.
  110. Rom, R.C. (1989). In: Intensive Orcharding Peterson A. B. (ed.). Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, WA.
  111. Rom, R.C. (1983). Fruit Var. J., 37(1): 314.
  112. Rom, R.C. and Carlson R.F. (1987). Rootstocks for fruit crops. Wiley, New York, NY.
  113. Santos, R., et al (1991). HortSci., 26: 748.
  114. Saure, M.C. (1987). Scientia Hort., 30: 253-282.
  115. Savage, E.F. and Cowart F.F. (1942). Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 41: 67-70.
  116. Schupp, J.R. and Ferree D.C. (1987). HortSci., 22: 387-390.
  117. Schupp, J.R. and Ferree D.C. (1988). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 113: 194-198.
  118. Schupp, J.R., et al (1992). J. Hort. Sci., 67: 465-480.
  119. Stang, E.J., et al (1976). Ohio Agr. Res. Devel. Ctr. Res. Circ., 220: 913.
  120. Susa, T. (1938). Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 36: 150-152.
  121. Taylor, B.H. and Ferree D.C. (1984). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 109: 19-24.
  122. Tromp, J. (1970). Acta Bot. Neerl., 19(4): 535-538.
  123. Tukey, H.B. (1964). Dwarfed Fruit Trees. Macmillan, New York
  124. Tukey, L.D. (1983). Acta Hort., 137: 103-109.
  125. Tukey, H.B. and Brase K.D. (1941). Proc. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 38: 321-327.
  126. Unrath, C.R. (1999). HortSci., 34: 1197-1999.
  127. Unrath, C.R., et al (1969). J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 94: 387-391.
  128. Utermark, H. (1977). Compact Fruit Tree, 10: 86-90.Vol. 30, No. 1, 2009 23
  129. Walker, C.D. (1980). Acta Hortic., 114: 309-317.
  130. Wareing, P.F. and Nasr T.A.A. (1961). Ann. Bot., 25: 321-340.
  131. Williams, M.W. (1984). In: Ory R.L. and Rittig F.R. (eds.). Bioregulators: Chemistry and Uses. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.
  132. Williams, M.W. and Edgerton, L.J. (1983). Acta Hort., 137: 111-116.
  133. Wilton, J. (1999). Orchardist, 72(7): 14-18.

Global Footprints