CHICKPEA WILT AND ITS MANAGEMENT - A REVIEW

Article Id: ARCC2083 | Page : 1 - 12
Citation :- CHICKPEA WILT AND ITS MANAGEMENT - A REVIEW.Agricultural Reviews.2009.(30):1 - 12
Hari Chand and S.K.Khirbat
Address : Department of Plant Pathology C.C.S. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar-125004, India

Abstract

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L), wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri
was first reported from India in 1918. Currently the disease is prevalent in several
countries. The pathogen is highly variable in its cultural characteristics and
pathogenicity. Yield losses vary between 10% to 100% depending on varietal
susceptibility and agroclimatic conditions. When disease occurs at seedling stage,
seedlings collapse and lie flat on soil surface. In case of adult plants, characteristic
symptom is brown to black discolouration of xylem vessels. In susceptible plants
hyphae are inter and intracellular in pith, xytem and cortex. The phytotoxin produced
by the pathogen causes wilting and leaf burning. There exist a correlation between
pathogen produced pectate lyase with pathogenicity and/or virulence. The fungus
may be seed borne and may survive in soil. The disease is more severe in light sandy
soil than heavy clay. High soil temperature and deficiency of moisture appear to
have a definite bearing on its incidence. The amount of organic matter is inversely
related to wilt incidence. The development of wilt is favoured by increase in nitrogen.
The optimum temperature and pH for pathogen are 25oC and 5-6.5 respectively.
Delay in sowing helps in minimizing disease. Mixed cropping of chickpea with wheat
and berseem gives measurable disease control. Seed treatment with Benlate T (0.15%)
destroys seed borne inoculum completely. Biocontrol agents such as Trichoderma
spp., Glomus spp. and fluorescent Pseudomonas give measurable reduction in disease.
Use of resistant varieties, which are available, is best mean of disease control

Keywords

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