Agricultural Reviews
your articles with us

Quick Facts

Payment Options

payment portals

Click here to pay directly

Dietary essentiality of trace minerals in aquaculture-A Review

S. Chanda, B.N. Paul*, K. Ghosh and S.S. Giri
Regional Research Centre, Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara, Kolkata-700 118, India.

Page Range:
Article ID:
Online Published:
An element is considered as dietary essential when its absence or insufficiency in diet causes deficiency syndrome and supplementation in normal level brings back normal health. An organism can neither grow nor remain healthy without the element in question. The element should have a direct influence on the organism and involved in the metabolism. Effects of the essential elements cannot be wholly or partly replaced by any other elements. All forms of aquatic inhabitants require some inorganic elements in little or trace amounts for their normal growth and metabolism. Trace minerals do not exist only by themselves but in combination with others. Therefore too much of one element may lead to imbalances in others resulting in disease or adverse effect in metabolism. Factors such as diet, absorption ability, toxicities and drug-nutrient interactions may play a role in maintaining a balance of trace minerals in the animal body. In comparison to the farmed animals, the knowledge on dietary essentiality of minerals in fish is scarce being mainly restricted to iron, copper, manganese, zinc, iodine, selenium, cobalt and chromium as components of body fluids, co-factors in enzymatic reactions, structural units of non-enzymatic macromolecules, etc. Investigations in fish are comparatively complicated as both dietary intake and its uptake from availability in water have to be taken in account for determining the total mineral budgets. The importance of trace minerals as essential ingredients in diets, although in small quantities, is also evident in fish. Though requirements of trace minerals have been studied in some species, still research work needs to be intensified for other freshwater fish species.
Copper, Fish nutrition, Iron, Manganese, Requirement, Selenium, Trace minerals, Zinc.
  1. Agrawal, N.K. and Mahajan, C.L. (1981). Effect of ascorbic acid deficiency on the uptake of iodine by thyroid and non- thyroid tissues of an air-breathing freshwater fish Channa punctatus Bloch. Inland Fish Biol. 18:411-416.
  2. Alabaster, J.S., and Lloyd, R. (1980). Water Quality Criteria for Freshwater Fish. Butterworths, London.
  3. Anadu, D.I., Anozie, O.C. and Anthony, A.D. (1990). Growth responses of i’llapia zillii fed diets containing various levels of ascorbic acid and cobalt chloride. Aquaculture. 88: 329-336.
  4. Bell, J.G., Cowey, C.B., Adron, J.W. and Pirie, B.J.S. (1987). Some effects of selenium deficiency on enzyme activities and indices of tissue peroxidation in Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar). Aquaculture. 65: 43-54.
  5. Bell, J.G., Cowey, C.B., Adron, J.W. and Shanks, A.M. (1985). Some effects of vitamin E and selenium deprivation on tissue enzyme levels and indices of tissue peroxidation in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Br. J. Nutr. 53: 149-157.
  6. Benoit, D.A. (1976). Toxic effects on hexavalent chromium on brooke trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Water Res. 10: 497-500.
  7. Bernhard, M., and Andreae, M.O. (1984). Transport of trace metals in marine food chains. Life Sci. Res. Rep. 28: 143-167.
  8. Bhanot, K.K. and Gopalakrishnan, V. (1973). Priorities in nutritional research for formulating artificial feeds for fishes. J. Inland Fish Sot. India. 5: 162-170.
  9. Bryan, G.W. (1976). Effects of pollutants on Aquatic organisms. (A.P.M. Lockwood, ed.), Cambridge University Press, London. p. 7.
  10. Bryan, G.W. (1979). Bioaccumulation of marine pollutants. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London B 286: 483-505.
  11. Castell, J.D., Conklin, D.E., Craigie, J.S., Lall, S.P. and Norman-Boudreau, K. (1986). In: M. Bile, H. Rosenthal and C. Sindermann (Editors), Realism in Aquaculture: Achievements, Constraints, Perspectives. European Aquaculture Society, Belgium, pp. 251-308.
  12. Chesters, J.K. (1991) Trace element-gene interarctions with particular reference to zinc. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 50:123-129.
  13. Clark, J., MacDonald, N.L. and Stark, J.R. (1987). Leucine aminopeptidase in the digestive tract of Dover sole Mea solea CL. Aquaculture,. 61: 23 l-239.
  14. Cunningham, L.W., Fischer, R.L. and Vestling, C.S. (1955). The binding of zinc and cobalt by insulin. J. Am. Chem. Sot. 77: 5703-5707.
  15. Desjardins, L.M. (1985). The effect of iron supplementation on diet rancidity and on the growth and physiological response of rainbow trout. M.Sc. Thesis, The University of Guelph, Ontario, 174 pp.
  16. Desjardins, L.M., Hicks, B. and Hilton, J.W. (1987). Iron catalysed oxidation of trout diets and its effect on the growth and physiological response of rainbow trout. Fish Physiol. Biochem., 3: 173-182.
  17. Eisler, R. (1980). In “ Zinc in the Environment” (J.O. Nriagu, ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 259-351. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  18. Fjoelstad, M. and Heyeraas, A.L. (1985). Muscular and myocardial degeneration in cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., suffering from ‘Hitra disease’. J. Fish Dis., 8: 367-372.
  19. Forbes, R.M. and Erdman, J.W. (1983). Bioavailability of trace minerals. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 3:213-221.
  20. Frieden, E. (1984). In: “Biochemistry of the Essential Ultratrace Elements” (E. Frieden, ed.), pp. 1. Plenum, New York.
  21. Frolova, L.K. (1960). Vlijanie kobal’ta na morfologi Eeskuju kartinu krovi karpa. Dokl. Akad. Nauk USSR, 131: 983-984.
  22. Gatlin, III, D.M. and Wilson, R.P. (1983). Dietary zinc requirement of fingerling channel catfish. J. Nutr., 113: 630-635.
  23. Gatlin, III, D.M. and Wilson, R.P., (1984). Studies on the manganese requirement of fingerling channel catfish. Aquaculture, 41: 85-92.
  24. Gatlin, III, D.M. and Wilson, R.P., (1986). Dietary copper requirement of fingerling channel cattish. Aquaculture, 54: 277-285.
  25. Gaylord, H.R., Marsh, M.C., Busch, F.C., and Simpson, B. (1914). Bull. U.S. Bur. Fish, 32: 363-524.
  26. Ghosh, S.R., (1975). Preliminary observation on the effect of cobalt on the survival and growth of Mugil parsia. Bamidgeh, 27: 110-111.
  27. Gregory, L.A. and Eales, J.G. (1975). Factors contributing to high levels of plasma iodide in brook trout, Saluelinus fontinalis (Mitchill). Can. J. Zool., 53: 267-277.
  28. Han, D., Xie, S., Liu, M., Xiao, X., Liu, H., Zhu, X., and Yang, Y. (2011). The effect of dietary Selenium on growth performances, oxidative stress and tissue selenium concentration of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Aquaculture Nutrition. 17: 741-749.
  29. Hardy, R.W., Shearer, K.D. and King, LB. (1984). Proximate and elemental composition of developing eggs and maternal soma of pen-reared coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fed production and trace element fortified diets. Aquaculture. 43: 147-165.
  30. Hardy, R.W., Sullivian, C.V., and Koziol, A.M. (1987). Absorption, body distribution and excretion of dietary zinc by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 3: 133-138.
  31. Hertz, Y., Madar, Z., Hepper, B. and Gertler, A. (1989). Glucose metabolism in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio, L.) the effects of cobalt and chromium. Aquaculture. 76: 255-267.
  32. Higgs, D.A., Fagerlund, U.H.M., Eales, J.G. and McBride, J.R. (1982). Application of thyroid and steroid hormones as anabolic agents in fish culture. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 73B: 143-176.
  33. Hilton, J.W. (1989). The interaction of vitamins, minerals and diet composition in the diet of fish. Aquaculture. 79: 223-244.
  34. Hilton, J.W., Hodson, P.V. and Slinger, S.J. (1980). The requirement and toxicity of selenium in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Nutr. 110: 2527-2535.
  35. Hughes, S.G. (1985). Nutritional eye diseases in salmonids: a review. Prog. Fish Cult. 47: 81-85.
  36. Hunn, J.B. and Fromm, P.O. (1966). In vivo uptake of radioiodide by rainbow trout. J. Water Pollut. Contr. Fed. 38: 1981- 1985.
  37. Ikeda, Y., Ozaki, H. and Vematsu, K. (1973). Effect of enriched diet with iron in culture of yellowtail. J. Tokyo Univ. Fish. 59: 91-99.
  38. Ishac, M.M. and Dollar, A.M. (1968). Studies on manganese uptake in Tilapia mossambica and Salmo gairdneri. 1. Growth of Tilapia mossambica in response to manganese. Hydrobiologia. 31: 572-584.
  39. Kashiwada, K., Teshima, S. and Kanazawa, A. (1970). Studies on the production of B vitamins by intestinal bacteria of fish- V. Evidence of the production of vitamin B by microorganisms in the intestinal canal of carp Cyprinus carpio. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi. 36: 421-424.
  40. Kawatsu, H. (1972). Studies on the anemia of fish. V. Dietary iron deficient anemia in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Bull. Freshwater Fish. Res. Lab. 22: 59-67.
  41. Ketola, H.G. (1979). Influence of zinc on cataracts in Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Nutrition. 109: 965-969.
  42. Khan, H.A. and Mukhopadhay, S.K. (1971). Observation on the effects of yeast and cobalt chloride in increasing the survival rate of the hatchlings of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Symposium on Trends of Research in Zoology. Zoological Society, Calcutta, pp.11 – 12.
  43. Kiron, V., Gunji, A., Okamoto, N., Satoh, S., Ikeda, Y. and Watanabe, T. (1993). Dietary nutrient dependent variations on natural-killer activity of the leucocytes of rainbow trout. Fish Pathol. 28: 71-76.
  44. Knox, D., Cowey, C.B. and Adron, J.W. (1982). Effects of dietary copper and copper:zinc ratio on rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Aquaculture. 27: 11 l-l 19.
  45. Kuenze, J., Bihringer, H. and Harms, V. (1978). Accumulation of cobalt during embryonic development of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnen’). Aquaculture. 13: 61-66.
  46. Lall, S.P. (1979). In: “Finfish Nutrition and Fishfeed Technology” (J.E. Halver and K. Tiews, eds.), Heeneman, Germany. 1: 86.
  47. Lall, S.P. (1989). The Minerals. In: J.E. Halver (Editor), Fish Nutrition, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, pp. 219-257.
  48. Lanno, R.P., Slinger, S.J. and Hilton, J.W. (1985a). Effect of ascorbic acid on dietary copper toxicity in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Aquaculture. 49: 269-287.
  49. Lanno, R.P., Slinger, S.J. and Hilton, J.W. (1985b). Maximum tolerable and toxicity levels of dietary copper in rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Aquaculture, 49: 257-268.
  50. Limsuwan, T. and Lovell, R.T. (1981). Intestinal synthesis and absorption of vitamin B12 in channel catfish. J. Nutr., 111: 2125-2132.
  51. Lovegrove, S.M. and Eddy, B. (1982). Uptake and accumulation of zinc in juvenile rainbow trout, Salmo gairdner Environ. Biol. Fish. 7: 285-289.
  52. Lovell, R.T. (1979). Formulating diets for aquaculture species. Feedstuffs, 51: 29-32.
  53. Mertz, W. (1986). Trace elements in Human Nutrition. 5th ed. Academic Press, Orlando.
  54. Mertz, W. (1993). Chromium in human nutrition: A Review. J. Nutr. 123(4): 626-633.
  55. Murai, T., Andrews, J.W. and Smith, R.G. Jr. (1981). Effects of dietary copper on channel catfish. Aquaculture, 22: 353-357.
  56. Ng, W.K. and Wilson, R.P. (1997). Chromic oxide inclusion in the diet does not affect glucose or chromium retention by channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. J. Nutr. 127: 2357-2362.
  57. Nose, T. and Araai, S. (1979). Recent advances in studies on mineral nutrition in Japan. In T.V.R. Pillay and A. Dill(Eds., Advances in Aquaculture, pp.584-590. Faraham,England: Fishing News Books.
  58. NRC (National Research Council), (1983). Nutrient Requirements of Warmwater Fishes and Shellfishes. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 102 pp.
  59. O’Dell, B.L. (1984). Present knowledge of Nutrition, Nutrition Reviews. Nutrition Foundation, Washinton, DC. p. 506.
  60. Ogino, C. and Yang, G.Y. (1978). Requirement of rainbow trout for dietary zinc. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 44: 1015-1018.
  61. Ogino, C. and Yang, G.Y. (1979). Requirement of carp for dietary zinc. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 45: 967-969.
  62. Ogino, C. and Yang, G.Y. (1980). Requirements of carp and rainbow trout for dietary manganese and copper. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 46: 455-458.
  63. Pantreath, R.J. (1973). The accumulation and retention of 65Zn and 54Mn by the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, L. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 12: 1-18.
  64. Phillips, A.M., Lovelace, F.E., Podoliak, H.A., Brockway, D.R. and Baizer, G.C. (1956). The absorption of minerals from water and food by brook trout. Fish. Res. Bull. N.Y., 19: 6-37.
  65. Phillips, A.M., Podiliak, H.A., Livingston, D.L., Dumas, R.F. and Hammer, G.L. (1960). Metabolism of trace levels of dietary cobalt by brook trout. Fish. Res. Bull. N.Y., 23: 36-46.
  66. Phillips, A.M., Podoliak, H.A., Brockway, D.R. and Baizer, G.C. (1957). The absorption by brook, brown, rainbow, and lake trout of dissolved cobalt from aquaria water. Fish. Res. Bull. N.Y., 20: 19-25.
  67. Phillips, A.M., Podoliak, H.A., Brockway, D.R. and Vaughn, R.R. (1958). Absorption of dissolved cobalt by brook trout. Fish. Res. Bull. N.Y., 21: 71-86.
  68. Poppe, T.T., Hastein, T., Froeslie, A., Koppanz, N. and Norheim, G. (1986). Nutritional aspects of haemorrhagic syndrome (‘Hitra Disease’) in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Dis. Aquat. Organisms, 1: 155-162.
  69. Poston, H.A. and Combs, G.F. (1979). Interrelationships between requirements for dietary selenium, vitamin E, and L- ascorbic acid by Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed a semipurified diet. Fish Health News, 8(4): VI-VII.
  70. Poston, H.A., Combs, G.F. and Leibovitz, L. (1976). Vitamin E and selenium interrelations in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): gross, histological and biochemical signs. J. Nutr., 106: 892-904.
  71. Roeder, M. and Roeder, R.H. (1966). Effect of iron on the growth rate of fishes. J. Nutr. 90: 86-90.
  72. Roginski, E.E. and Mertz, W. (1977). A biphasic response of rats to cobalt. J. Nun., 107: 1537-1542.
  73. Rostruck, J.T., Pope, A.L., Schwartz, K. and Ganther, H.E. (1973). Selenium: Biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science, 179: 588-590.
  74. Sabalina, A.A. (1964). Vlijanie chloristogo kobal’ta na razvitie i rost raduinoj foreli (Salmo irideus Gibbons). Izv. GosNIORCh, 58: 139-149.
  75. Sabalina, A.A. (1968). Dejstvie chloristogo kobal’ta na fizioIogiEeskie pokazateli raduinoj foreli (Salmo irideus Gibbons). Vopr. Ictiol., 8: 931-938.
  76. Sakamoto, S. and Yone, Y. (1978a). Requirement of red seabream for dietary iron-II. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 44: 223-225.
  77. Sakamoto, S. and Yone, Y. (1978b). Iron deficiency symptoms of carp. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 44: 1157-1160.
  78. Sakamoto, S. and Yone, Y. (1979). Availabilities of three iron compounds as dietary iron sources for red seabream. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 45: 231-235.
  79. Satoh, S., Yamamoto, H., Takeuchi, T. and Watanabe, T. (1983a). Effects on growth and mineral composition of rainbow trout on deletion of trace elements or magnesium from fish meal diet. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 49: 425-429.
  80. Satoh, S., Yamamoto, H., Takeuchi, T. and Watanabe, T. (1983b). Effects on growth and mineral composition of carp on deletion of trace elements or magnesium from fish meal diet. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 49: 431-43s.
  81. Satoh. S., Izume, K., Takeuchi, T. and Watanabe, T. (1989). Availability to carp of manganese contained in various types of fish meals. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 55: 313-319.
  82. Satoh. S., Takeuchi, T. and Watanabe, T. (1987a). Effect of deletion of several trace elements from a mineral mixture in fish meal diets on mineral composition of gonads in rainbow trout and carp. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 53: 281-286.
  83. Satoh. S., Takeuchi, T. and Watanabe, T. (1987b). Availability to carp of manganese in white fish meal and of various manganese compounds. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 53: 825-832.
  84. Senadheera, S.D., Turchini, G.M., Thanuthong, T. and Francis. D.S. (2012). Effects of dietary iron supplementation on growth performance, fatty acid composition and fatty acid metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed vegetable oil based diets. Aquaculture. 342-343: 80-88.
  85. Shears, M.A. and Fletcher, G.L. (1983). Regulation of Zn2+ uptake from the gastrointestinal tract of marine teleost the winter flounder. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 40: 197-205.
  86. Shiau, S.Y. and Lin, S.F. (1993). Effect of supplemental dietary chromium and vanadium on the utilization of different carbohydrates in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus X 0. aureus. Aquaculture, 110: 321-330.
  87. Spray, D.J., Hodson, P.V. and Wood, C.M. (1988). Relative contributions of dietary and waterborne zinc in the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 45: 32-41.
  88. Srivastava, A.K. and Agrawal, S.J. (1983). Changes induced by manganese in fish testis. Experientia, 39: 1309-1310.
  89. Steffens, W. (1989). Principles of Fish Nutrition, Ellis Hot-wood, Chichester, 384 pp.
  90. Sukhoverkov, F.M. (1967). Estimation of standing corps and rates of feeding in ponds. FAO Fish. Rep., 44(3):4 16-423.
  91. Syed, M.A. and Coombs, T.L. (1982). Copper metabolism in the plaice Pleuronectes platessa (L). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 63: 281-286.
  92. Tacon, A.G.J. and Beveridge, M.M. (1982). Effects of dietary trivalent chromium on rainbow trout. Nutr. Rep. Int. 25:49-56.
  93. Tacon, A.G.J. and De Silva, S.S. (1983). Mineral composition of some commercial fish feeds available in Europe. Aquaculture, 31: 11-20.
  94. Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, T., Ogino, C., Saito, M., Nishimura, K. and Nose, T. (1981). Effects of low protein-high calorie diets and deletion of trace elements from a fish meal diet on reproduction of rainbow trout. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 47: 64-654.
  95. Toepfer, E.W., Mertz, W., Polansky, M.M., Roginski, E.E. and Wolf, W.R. (1977). Preparation of chromium containing material of glucose tolerance factor activity from Brewer’s yeast extracts and by synthesis. J. Agri. Food Chem., 25: 162-166.
  96. Van Dijk, J.P., Lagerwerf, A.J., Van Eijk, H.G. and Leijnse, B. (1975). Iron metabolism in the tench (Tinca tinca L.). I. Studies by means of intravascular administration of 59Fe (III) bound to plasma. J. Comp. Physiol., 99: 321-330.
  97. Watanabe, T., Kiron, V. and Satoh, S. (1997). Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquaculture 151: 185-207.
  98. Watnabe, T. Murukami, A., Takeuchi, I., Nose, T. and Ogino, C. (1980). Requirement of Chum Salmon held in freshwater for dietary phosphorus. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish., 46: 361-367.
  99. Yamamoto, K., Hayama, K. and Ikeda, S. (1981). Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on copper poisoning in rainbow trout. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 47: 1085-1089.
  100. Yamamoto, K., Ishii, T., Sate, M. and Ikeda, S. (1977). Effect of dietary ascorbic acid on the accumulation of copper in carp. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 43: 989-995.
Global footprints

© 2015 AARC JOURNALS. All Rights Reserved. Powered By AARC JOURNALS