Agricultural Reviews
your articles with us

Quick Facts

Payment Options

payment portals

Click here to pay directly


S.L. Ingale*, S.V. Mulik1, Amol Suryawanshi1 and Someshwar Zadbuke
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar- 243 122, India 1University of Tennessee, Knoxiville, 37919, USA

Page Range:
Article ID:
Online Published:
There are number of internal and external factors that affect the production performance ofanimals, among which parasites and parasitism are major of concern constraints to animal’s productivityespecially in tropical countries. The usual mode of control of these gastro-intestinal parasites (GIP)by based on the repeated use of anthelmintics is now strongly questioned because of the increasingdevelopment of resistance to these molecules. Among the alternative methods to anthelmintics currentlyavailable, the manipulation of host nutrition in order to improve the host resistance and/or resilienceto parasitic infections seems to represent one of the most promising options to reduce the dependenceon conventional chemotherapy and to favor the sustainable control of GIP. This paper will discussthe interactions between nutrition and parasitism and will also refer to quantitative (influence ofprotein, energy, micronutrients and other phyto-additives) as well as to qualitative (organic livestockfarming, foraging) aspects of the diet. The beneficial effect of nutrition, more specifically, theimportance of protein nutrition for the maintenance of host immunity to parasitism, the potentialuse of novel crops and possibilities for biological control have also been discussed. Biological controlof parasitic nematodes seems to hold promise for the future, but to be able to assist producers; theoptimal delivery system needs to be refined and further developed. In addition, more work will beneeded to define anthelmintic resistance, non-chemical alternatives to parasite control, modulationof immunity to parasites by genetic and nutritional factor, integrated parasite control strategy andthe best use of these technologies in different geographic regions. Internal parasites are a potentiallyserious threat to the health, welfare and productivity of organically managed livestock, the ultimategoal of which is to eliminate dependence on antiparasitic drugs, however this is rarely achieved inpractice. It is now realized that chemical anthelmintic treatment, on its own, may not provide a longterm strategy for managing parasite in grazing ruminants. There is a growing awareness for strategicnutritional supplementation with far reaching consequences, viz. increased production of meat, milkand wool, and also of its quality, growth and reproductive efficiency, parasite control, enhancementof immunity and disease resistance.
Nutrition, Parasite, Animal health.
  1. Athanasiadou, S. et al (2003). In: Proc. VI International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores, 19–24 October
  2. 2003, Merida, Mexico.
  3. Blaxter, K.L. (1989). Brit. J. Nutri. 66: 237-249.
  4. Burke J.M. et al (2004). Vet. Parasitol. 123:235-243.
  5. Burke J.M. et al (2006). Vet Parasitol. 139:145-149.
  6. Chandra, R.K. (1993). Proc. Nutr. Soc. 52: 77-84.
  7. Coop, R.L. and Field, A.C. (1983). Res. Vet. Sci. 35: 175-181.
  8. Coop, R.L. and Kyriazakis, I. (1999). Vet. Parasitol. 84: 187-204.
  9. Coop, R.L. et al (1995). Res. Vet. Sci. 59: 24-29.
  10. Cresswell K.J. et al (2004). Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr. 13(Suppl), S90.
  11. Evans, J.W. et al (2001). Poultry Sci. 80: 258.
  12. Ezenwa, V.O. (2004). Int. J. Parasitol. 34:535-542.
  13. Hammerschmidt, K. and Kurtz, J. (2005). Proc. Royal Society of London Biological Sci. 272: 2511-2518.
  14. Holmes, P.H. (1993). Proc. Nutri. Soc. 52: 113-120.
  15. Hoste, H. et al (2005). Small Rumi. Res. 60: 141–151.
  16. Klassing, K.C. (1991). Proc. 26th Nat. Mtg. Poult. Hlth. Condem. Pp 97-106.
  17. Kloosterman, A. & Henken, A. M. (1987). In Energy Metabolisni in Farm Animals, pp. 352-371
  18. Knox M.R. (2002). Aust. Vet. J. 80:224-227.
  19. Mac Rae, J.C. (1993). Proc. Nutri. Soc. 52: 121-131.
  20. Vol. 31, No. 1, 2010 55
  21. Martínez Ortiz de Montellano C. et al (2007). Vet. Parasitol. 146:66-76.
  22. Mausour, M.M. et al (1992). Vet. Immunol. 33: 261-269.
  23. McAllister T.A. et al (2001). Vet. Parasitol. 97: 85-99.
  24. Nockels, C.F. (1991). Trop. Vet. Med. Winter/Spring: 14-17.
  25. Plock A. et al (2001). Experi. Parasitol. 97:141-153.
  26. Quinnel, R.J. and Keymer, A.E. (1990). In: Parasites, Immunity and Pathology, Taylor and Francis, London. pp 317-343.
  27. Rowe, J. B., et al (1982). Proceed. Nutri Soc. 41:74A.
  28. Parkins, J. J., et al (1990). Res. Vet. Sci. 6: 561-567
  29. Poulin, R. (2000). International J. Parasitol. 29: 903-914
  30. Poppi, D. P., et al (1981). Proc. Nutrition Society 40: 1164.
  31. Roseby, F. B. (1977). Aus. J. Agri. Res. 28: 155-164.
  32. Sahoo, A. et al (2004). J. Appl. Anim. Res. 25: 49-51.
  33. Solomans, N.W. and Keusch, G.T. (1981). Nutri. Rev. 39: 149-161.
  34. Stevenson, A. G. (1989). PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow.
  35. Steel. J. W. and Syrnons, L. E. A. (1982). Proceedings of the McMuster Animal Health Laboratory 50th Annual
  36. Symposium in Purusitology, pp. 235 256.
  37. Sykes. A. R. & Coop, R. L. (1977). J Agri. Sci. 88: 67 1-677.
  38. Sykes, A.R. (1987). In: Proc. 2nd International Symposium on the Nutrition of Herbivores, Brisbane, Australia. pp 211-232
  39. Symons, L. et al (1981 ). Australian J. Agri Res.32: 139- 148.
  40. Traore F. et al (2000). Planta Medica. 66:368-371.
  41. Van Houtert, M.EJ. and Sykes, A.R. (1996). Int. J. Para-sitol. 26: 1151-1168.
  42. Verstegen, M.W.A. et al (1991). J. Anim. Sci. 69: 1667.
  43. Wells, Ann. (1999). Integrated parasite management for livestock. Livestock Systems Guide, ATTRA, USDA
  44. Yu, F. et al (1999). Ame. J. Physiol. 53: 163-167.
Global footprints

© 2015 AARC JOURNALS. All Rights Reserved. Powered By AARC JOURNALS